CLIM, the galaxy's most advanced graphics toolkit
Tagged as tutorial
Written by Gabriel Laddel on 2016-08-11 17:00
Setting up the basic environment
We assume that you already have configured the Common Lisp environment
(including Quicklisp) and that you know the basics of the Common Lisp
programming. The necessary systems to load are
clim-listener, you may load them with the Quicklisp. After that
launch the listener in a separate thread:
(ql:quickload '(mcclim clim-listener)) (clim-listener:run-listener :new-process t)
Finding your way around CLIM
CLIM is the global minimum in graphics toolkits. Geometry, and means
of abstracting it. Switch the listener into the CLIM-INTERNALS package
to get started. Type
(in-package climi) in the
Evaluate the 4 following forms in
Slime REPL, then call
(cos-animation) in the
Listener REPL to demonstrate CLIM's
animation capabilities. You cannot evaluate (cos-animation) in the
Slime REPL, as
*standard-output* is bound to the its output stream
which isn't a
sheet, and thus cannot be drawn on.
(in-package climi) (defparameter *scale-multiplier* 150 "try modifying me while running!") (defparameter *sleep-time* 0.0001 "modify and eval to speed or slow the animation, set to `nil' to stop") (defun cos-animation () (let* ((range (loop for k from 0 to (* 2 pi) by 0.1 collect k)) ; length of 62 (idx 0) (record (updating-output (*standard-output*) (loop for x from (nth idx range) to (+ (nth idx range) (* 2 pi)) by 0.01 with y-offset = 150 for x-offset = (- 10 (* *scale-multiplier* (nth idx range))) for y-value = (+ y-offset (* *scale-multiplier* (cos x))) for x-value = (+ x-offset (* *scale-multiplier* x)) do (draw-point* *standard-output* x-value y-value :ink +green+ :line-thickness 3))))) (loop while *sleep-time* do (progn (sleep *sleep-time*) (if (= 61 idx) (setq idx 0) (incf idx)) (redisplay record *standard-output*)))))
If you want to stop the animation, issue in the
(setf *sleep-time* nil)
If it wasn't already obvious, you can plot w/e.
(CLIM-LISTENER::DRAW-FUNCTION-FILLED-GRAPH #'tanh :min-x (- 0 pi pi) :max-x pi :min-y -1.1 :max-y 1.5 :ink +blue+)
Drawning class hierarchy
,clear output history in the
Listener REPL and RET to clear
"," indicates that you are activating a command. Try typing comma, then C-/ to activate completion. C-c C-c to dismiss.
Children of the class
CLIMI::SHEET can be drawn on using arbitrary
(clim-listener::com-show-class-subclasses 'sheet) in
Listener REPL to view the subclasses of it.
Commands and presentations
The name COM-whatever indicates that the function in question is a
clim command, which you can define in the
Slime REPL like so,
(in-package clim-listener) ;;; Runme! We will need these in a moment. (dolist (image-name '("mp-avatar.png" "vulpes-avatar.png" "stas-avatar.png" "suit-avatar.png" "rainbow-dash-avatar.png" "chaos-lord-avatar.png")) (uiop:run-program (format nil "curl https://common-lisp.net/project/mcclim/static/media/tutorial-1/~A --output /tmp/~A" image-name image-name))) (define-listener-command (com-ls :name t) ((path 'string)) (clim-listener::com-show-directory path))
,ls /tmp/ -- then
,display image <SPACE> and click on one of
the displayed paths to supply it as an argument. At the core of CLIM
is the notion of a presentation. Objects have presentation methods,
ie, some arbitrary rendering geometry, and when PRESENT'd on the
screen CLIM remembers the type. Thus one can supply objects of the
appropriate types as arguments to a command simply by clicking on
them. Read about
CLIMI::DEFINE-COMMAND in the specification to learn
more. Let's define our first presentation method.
Intermixing S-expressions with the presentation types
Evaluate the forms below in the
(in-package climi) (defvar lords '("mircea_popescu" "asciilifeform" "ben_vulpes")) (defclass wot-identity () ((name :accessor name :initarg :name :initform nil) (avatar :accessor avatar :initarg :avatar :initform nil))) (defmethod lord? ((i wot-identity)) (member (name i) lords :test #'string=)) (define-presentation-type wot-identity ()) (defun make-identity (name avatar-pathname) (make-instance 'wot-identity :name name :avatar avatar-pathname)) (defparameter *identities* (mapcar (lambda (l) (apply #'make-identity l)) '(("mircea_popescu" #P"/tmp/mp-avatar.png") ("ben_vulpes" #P"/tmp/vulpes-avatar.png") ("asciilifeform" #P"/tmp/stas-avatar.png") ("Suit" #P"/tmp/suit-avatar.png") ("RainbowDash" #P"/tmp/rainbow-dash-avatar.png") ("ChaosLord" #P"/tmp/chaos-lord-avatar.png")))) (define-presentation-method present (object (type wot-identity) stream (view textual-view) &key acceptably) (declare (ignorable acceptably)) (multiple-value-bind (x y) (stream-cursor-position stream) (with-slots (name avatar) object (draw-pattern* stream (climi::make-pattern-from-bitmap-file avatar :format :png) (+ 150 x) (+ 30 y)) (draw-text* stream name (+ 153 x) (+ 167 y) :ink +black+ :text-size 20) (draw-text* stream name (+ 152 x) (+ 166 y) :ink (if (lord? object) +gold+ +blue+) :text-size 20)) (setf (stream-cursor-position stream) (values x (+ 200 y))) object)) (defun eval-and-then-call-me-in-the-listener () (let* ((n 8) (sheet *standard-output*)) (labels ((gen (i) (let* ((out-and-start '(f x))) (loop for k from 0 to i do (setq out-and-start (apply #'append (mapcar (lambda (s) (case s ;; (x '(y f + f f + + x)) ;; (y '(y f + f f x - - f f x)) (x '(+ y f + f f + y y +)) (y '(f - y f f x f f)) )) out-and-start)))) (remove-if (lambda (sym) (member sym '(x y) :test 'eq)) out-and-start)))) (let* ((x 300) (y 300) (new-x x) (new-y y) (a 1) (step 15)) (loop for r in (gen n) do (progn (cond ((= a 1) (setq new-y (+ step y))) ((= a 2) (setq new-x (- x step))) ((= a 3) (setq new-y (- y step))) ((= a 4) (setq new-x (+ step x)))) (case r (f (clim:draw-line* sheet x y new-x new-y :ink clim:+blue+ :line-thickness 6 :line-cap-shape :round) (setq x new-x y new-y)) (- (setq a (if (= 1 a) 4 (1- a)))) (+ (setq a (if (= 4 a) 1 (1+ a)))) (t nil))))) (let* ((x 300) (y 300) (new-x x) (new-y y) (a 1) (step 15)) (loop for r in (gen n) do (progn (cond ((= a 1) (setq new-y (+ step y))) ((= a 2) (setq new-x (- x step))) ((= a 3) (setq new-y (- y step))) ((= a 4) (setq new-x (+ step x)))) (case r (f (clim:draw-line* sheet x y new-x new-y :ink clim:+white+ :line-thickness 2 :line-cap-shape :round) (setq x new-x y new-y)) (- (setq a (if (= 1 a) 4 (1- a)))) (+ (setq a (if (= 4 a) 1 (1+ a)))) (t nil))))))))
(dolist (i *identities*) (present i)) at the CLIM Listener.
(lord? at the listener and then clicking on one of the
identities. Add a closing paren and RET. Notice how objects can be
seamlessly intermixed with S-expressions. If this example fails for
you it may be that you have not recent enough version of McCLIM.
Unripe fruits. The future isn't what it used to be - some assembly required.
(CLIM-DEMO::DEMODEMO)(available with system
The essential machinery of a 'live' GUI builder
Navigator (essentially an extended `apropos')