UIOP Manual

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UIOP

UIOP is a part of ASDF, which is released under an MIT style License:

Copyright © 2001-2018 Daniel Barlow and contributors.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.


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1 Introduction

UIOP is the portability layer of ASDF. It provides utilities that abstract over discrepancies between implementations, between operating systems, and between what the standard provides and what programmers actually need, to write portable Common Lisp programs.

It is organized by topic in many files, each of which defines its own package according to its topic: e.g pathname.lisp will define package uiop/pathname and contain utilities related to the handling of pathname objects. All exported symbols are reexported in a convenience package uiop, except for those from uiop/common-lisp. We recommend package uiop be used to access all the symbols.

The following API reference is auto-generated from the docstrings in the code. The chapters are arranged in dependency order.


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2 UIOP/PACKAGE

Function: find-symbol* name package-designator &optional error

Find a symbol in a package of given string’ified name; unlike cl:find-symbol, work well with ’modern’ case sensitive syntax by letting you supply a symbol or keyword for the name; also works well when the package is not present. If optional error argument is nil, return nil instead of an error when the symbol is not found.

Function: rehome-symbol symbol package-designator

Changes the home package of a symbol, also leaving it present in its old home if any

Function: symbol-call package name &rest args

Call a function associated with symbol of given name in given package, with given args. Useful when the call is read before the package is loaded, or when loading the package is optional.

Macro: define-package package &rest clauses

define-package takes a package and a number of clauses, of the form (keyword . args). define-package supports the following keywords: use, shadow, shadowing-import-from, import-from, export, intern -- as per cl:defpackage. recycle -- Recycle the package’s exported symbols from the specified packages, in order. For every symbol scheduled to be exported by the define-package, either through an :export option or a :reexport option, if the symbol exists in one of the :recycle packages, the first such symbol is re-homed to the package being defined. For the sake of idempotence, it is important that the package being defined should appear in first position if it already exists, and even if it doesn’t, ahead of any package that is not going to be deleted afterwards and never created again. In short, except for special cases, always make it the first package on the list if the list is not empty. mix -- Takes a list of package designators. mix behaves like (:use pkg1 pkg2 ... PKGn) but additionally uses :shadowing-import-from to resolve conflicts in favor of the first found symbol. It may still yield an error if there is a conflict with an explicitly :import-from symbol. reexport -- Takes a list of package designators. For each package, p, in the list, export symbols with the same name as those exported from p. Note that in the case of shadowing, etc. the symbols with the same name may not be the same symbols. unintern -- Remove symbols here from package.


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3 UIOP/COMMON-LISP

uiop/common-lisp lets you paper over various sub-standard implementations.

This package reexports all the symbols in common-lisp package.


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4 UIOP/UTILITY

Function: access-at-count at

From an at specification, extract a count of maximum number of sub-objects to read as per access-at

Function: access-at object at

Given an object and an at specifier, list of successive accessors, call each accessor on the result of the previous calls. An accessor may be an integer, meaning a call to elt, a keyword, meaning a call to getf, nil, meaning identity, a function or other symbol, meaning itself, or a list of a function designator and arguments, interpreted as per ensure-function. As a degenerate case, the at specifier may be an atom of a single such accessor instead of a list.

Function: base-string-p string

Does the string only contain BASE-CHARs?

Function: boolean-to-feature-expression value

Converts a boolean value to a form suitable for testing with #+.

Function: call-function function-spec &rest arguments

Call the function designated by function-spec as per ensure-function, with the given arguments

Function: call-functions function-specs

For each function in the list function-specs, in order, call the function as per call-function

Function: call-with-muffled-conditions thunk conditions

calls the thunk in a context where the conditions are muffled

Function: coerce-class class &key package super error

Coerce class to a class that is subclass of super if specified, or invoke error handler as per call-function.

A keyword designates the name a symbol, which when found in either package, designates a class. -- for backward compatibility, *package* is also accepted for now, but this may go in the future. A string is read as a symbol while in package, the symbol designates a class.

A class object designates itself. nil designates itself (no class). A symbol otherwise designates a class by name.

Function: emptyp x

Predicate that is true for an empty sequence

Function: ensure-function fun &key package

Coerce the object fun into a function.

If fun is a function, return it. If the fun is a non-sequence literal constant, return constantly that, i.e. for a boolean keyword character number or pathname. Otherwise if fun is a non-literally constant symbol, return its fdefinition. If fun is a cons, return the function that applies its car to the appended list of the rest of its cdr and the arguments, unless the car is lambda, in which case the expression is evaluated. If fun is a string, read a form from it in the specified package (default: CL) and eval that in a (function ...) context.

Function: ensure-gethash key table default

Lookup the table for a key as by gethash, but if not present, call the (possibly constant) function designated by default as per call-function, set the corresponding entry to the result in the table. Return two values: the entry after its optional computation, and whether it was found

Function: find-standard-case-symbol name-designator package-designator &optional error

Find a symbol designated by name-designator in a package designated by package-designator, where standard-case-symbol-name is used to transform them if these designators are strings. If optional error argument is nil, return nil instead of an error when the symbol is not found.

Function: first-char s

Return the first character of a non-empty string s, or nil

Function: frob-substrings string substrings &optional frob

for each substring in substrings, find occurrences of it within string that don’t use parts of matched occurrences of previous strings, and frob them, that is to say, remove them if frob is nil, replace by frob if frob is a string, or if frob is a function, call frob with the match and a function that emits a string in the output. Return a string made of the parts not omitted or emitted by frob.

Function: last-char s

Return the last character of a non-empty string s, or nil

Function: lexicographic<= element< x y

Lexicographically compare two lists of using the function element< to compare elements. element< is a strict total order; the resulting order on x and y will be a non-strict total order.

Function: lexicographic< element< x y

Lexicographically compare two lists of using the function element< to compare elements. element< is a strict total order; the resulting order on x and y will also be strict.

Function: list-to-hash-set list &aux (h (make-hash-table test (quote equal)))

Convert a list into hash-table that has the same elements when viewed as a set, up to the given equality test

Function: load-uiop-debug-utility &key package utility-file

Load the uiop debug utility in given package (default *package*). Beware: The utility is located by eval’uating the utility-file form (default *uiop-debug-utility*).

Function: match-any-condition-p condition conditions

match condition against any of the patterns of conditions supplied

Function: match-condition-p x condition

Compare received condition to some pattern x: a symbol naming a condition class, a simple vector of length 2, arguments to find-symbol* with result as above, or a string describing the format-control of a simple-condition.

Function: not-implemented-error functionality &optional format-control &rest format-arguments

Signal an error because some functionality is not implemented in the current version of the software on the current platform; it may or may not be implemented in different combinations of version of the software and of the underlying platform. Optionally, report a formatted error message.

Function: parameter-error format-control functionality &rest format-arguments

Signal an error because some functionality or its specific implementation on a given underlying platform does not accept a given parameter or combination of parameters. Report a formatted error message, that takes the functionality as its first argument (that can be skipped with ~*).

Function: parse-body body &key documentation whole

Parses body into (values remaining-forms declarations doc-string). Documentation strings are recognized only if documentation is true. Syntax errors in body are signalled and whole is used in the signal arguments when given.

Function: reduce/strcat strings &key key start end

Reduce a list as if by strcat, accepting key start and end keywords like reduce. nil is interpreted as an empty string. A character is interpreted as a string of length one.

Function: register-hook-function variable hook &optional call-now-p

Push the hook function (a designator as per ensure-function) onto the hook variable. When call-now-p is true, also call the function immediately.

Function: remove-plist-key key plist

Remove a single key from a plist

Function: remove-plist-keys keys plist

Remove a list of keys from a plist

Function: split-string string &key max separator

Split string into a list of components separated by any of the characters in the sequence separator. If max is specified, then no more than max(1,max) components will be returned, starting the separation from the end, e.g. when called with arguments "a.b.c.d.e" :max 3 :separator "." it will return ("a.b.c" "d" "e").

Function: standard-case-symbol-name name-designator

Given a name-designator for a symbol, if it is a symbol, convert it to a string using string; if it is a string, use string-upcase on an ANSI CL platform, or string on a so-called "modern" platform such as Allegro with modern syntax.

Function: strcat &rest strings

Concatenate strings. nil is interpreted as an empty string, a character as a string of length one.

Function: string-enclosed-p prefix string suffix

Does string begin with prefix and end with suffix?

Function: string-prefix-p prefix string

Does string begin with prefix?

Function: string-suffix-p string suffix

Does string end with suffix?

Function: strings-common-element-type strings

What least subtype of character can contain all the elements of all the strings?

Function: stripln x

Strip a string x from any ending CR, LF or CRLF. Return two values, the stripped string and the ending that was stripped, or the original value and nil if no stripping took place. Since our strcat accepts nil as empty string designator, the two results passed to strcat always reconstitute the original string

Function: symbol-test-to-feature-expression name package

Check if a symbol with a given name exists in package and returns a form suitable for testing with #+.

Macro: appendf place &rest args

Append onto list

Macro: nest &rest things

Macro to keep code nesting and indentation under control.

Macro: uiop-debug &rest keys

Load the uiop debug utility at compile-time as well as runtime

Macro: while-collecting (&rest collectors) &body body

collectors should be a list of names for collections. A collector defines a function that, when applied to an argument inside body, will add its argument to the corresponding collection. Returns multiple values, a list for each collection, in order. e.g., (while-collecting (foo bar) (dolist (x ’((a 1) (b 2) (c 3))) (foo (first x)) (bar (second x)))) Returns two values: (A b c) and (1 2 3).

Macro: with-muffled-conditions (conditions) &body body

Shorthand syntax for call-with-muffled-conditions

Macro: with-upgradability (&optional) &body body

Evaluate body at compile- load- and run- times, with defun and defgeneric modified to also declare the functions notinline and to accept a wrapping the function name specification into a list with keyword argument supersede (which defaults to t if the name is not wrapped, and nil if it is wrapped). If supersede is true, call undefine-function to supersede any previous definition.

Variable: *uiop-debug-utility*

form that evaluates to the pathname to your favorite debugging utilities


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5 UIOP/VERSION

Function: next-version version

When version is not nil, it is a string, then parse it as a version, compute the next version and return it as a string.

Function: parse-version version-string &optional on-error

Parse a version-string as a series of natural numbers separated by dots. Return a (non-null) list of integers if the string is valid; otherwise return nil.

When invalid, on-error is called as per call-function before to return nil, with format arguments explaining why the version is invalid. on-error is also called if the version is not canonical in that it doesn’t print back to itself, but the list is returned anyway.

Function: unparse-version version-list

From a parsed version (a list of natural numbers), compute the version string

Function: version-deprecation version &key style-warning warning error delete

Given a version string, and the starting versions for notifying the programmer of various levels of deprecation, return the current level of deprecation as per with-deprecation that is the highest level that has a declared version older than the specified version. Each start version for a level of deprecation can be specified by a keyword argument, or if left unspecified, will be the next-version of the immediate lower level of deprecation.

Function: version<= version1 version2

Given two version strings, return t if the second is newer or the same

Function: version< version1 version2

Given two version strings, return t if the second is strictly newer

Macro: with-deprecation (level) &body definitions

Given a deprecation level (a form to be eval’ed at macro-expansion time), instrument the defun and defmethod forms in definitions to notify the programmer of the deprecation of the function when it is compiled or called.

Increasing levels (as result from evaluating level) are: nil (not deprecated yet), :style-warning (a style warning is issued when used), :warning (a full warning is issued when used), :error (a continuable error instead), and :delete (it’s an error if the code is still there while at that level).

Forms other than defun and defmethod are not instrumented, and you can protect a defun or defmethod from instrumentation by enclosing it in a progn.


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6 UIOP/OS

Function: architecture

The CPU architecture of the current host

Function: chdir x

Change current directory, as per POSIX chdir(2), to a given pathname object

Function: detect-os

Detects the current operating system. Only needs be run at compile-time, except on ABCL where it might change between FASL compilation and runtime.

Function: featurep x &optional *features*

Checks whether a feature expression x is true with respect to the *features* set, as per the CLHS standard for #+ and #-. Beware that just like the CLHS, we assume symbols from the keyword package are used, but that unless you’re using #+/#- your reader will not have magically used the keyword package, so you need specify keywords explicitly.

Function: getcwd

Get the current working directory as per POSIX getcwd(3), as a pathname object

Function: getenv x

Query the environment, as in c getenv. Beware: may return empty string if a variable is present but empty; use getenvp to return nil in such a case.

Function: getenvp x

Predicate that is true if the named variable is present in the libc environment, then returning the non-empty string value of the variable

Function: hostname

return the hostname of the current host

Function: implementation-identifier

Return a string that identifies the abi of the current implementation, suitable for use as a directory name to segregate Lisp FASLs, c dynamic libraries, etc.

Function: implementation-type

The type of Lisp implementation used, as a short UIOP-standardized keyword

Function: lisp-version-string

return a string that identifies the current Lisp implementation version

Function: operating-system

The operating system of the current host

Function: os-genera-p

Is the underlying operating system Genera (running on a Symbolics Lisp Machine)?

Function: os-macosx-p

Is the underlying operating system MacOS x?

Function: os-unix-p

Is the underlying operating system some Unix variant?

Function: os-windows-p

Is the underlying operating system Microsoft Windows?

Function: parse-file-location-info s

helper to parse-windows-shortcut

Function: parse-windows-shortcut pathname

From a .lnk windows shortcut, extract the pathname linked to

Function: read-little-endian s &optional bytes

Read a number in little-endian format from an byte (octet) stream s, the number having bytes octets (defaulting to 4).

Function: read-null-terminated-string s

Read a null-terminated string from an octet stream s

Setf Expander: getenv x

Set an environment variable.

Variable: *implementation-type*

The type of Lisp implementation used, as a short UIOP-standardized keyword


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7 UIOP/PATHNAME

Function: absolute-pathname-p pathspec

If pathspec is a pathname or namestring object that parses as a pathname possessing an :absolute directory component, return the (parsed) pathname. Otherwise return nil

Function: call-with-enough-pathname maybe-subpath defaults-pathname thunk

In a context where *default-pathname-defaults* is bound to defaults-pathname (if not null, or else to its current value), call thunk with enough-pathname for maybe-subpath given defaults-pathname as a base pathname.

Function: denormalize-pathname-directory-component directory-component

Convert the directory-component from a CLHS-standard format to a format usable by the underlying implementation’s make-pathname and other primitives

Function: directorize-pathname-host-device pathname

Given a pathname, return a pathname that has representations of its host and device components added to its directory component. This is useful for output translations.

Function: directory-pathname-p pathname

Does pathname represent a directory?

A directory-pathname is a pathname _without_ a filename. The three ways that the filename components can be missing are for it to be nil, :unspecific or the empty string.

Note that this does _not_ check to see that pathname points to an actually-existing directory.

Function: directory-separator-for-host &optional pathname

Given a pathname, return the character used to delimit directory names on this host and device.

Function: enough-pathname maybe-subpath base-pathname

if maybe-subpath is a pathname that is under base-pathname, return a pathname object that when used with merge-pathnames* with defaults base-pathname, returns maybe-subpath.

Function: ensure-absolute-pathname path &optional defaults on-error

Given a pathname designator path, return an absolute pathname as specified by path considering the defaults, or, if not possible, use call-function on the specified on-error behavior, with a format control-string and other arguments as arguments

Function: ensure-directory-pathname pathspec &optional on-error

Converts the non-wild pathname designator pathspec to directory form.

Function: ensure-pathname pathname &key on-error defaults type dot-dot namestring empty-is-nil want-pathname want-logical want-physical ensure-physical want-relative want-absolute ensure-absolute ensure-subpath want-non-wild want-wild wilden want-file want-directory ensure-directory want-existing ensure-directories-exist truename resolve-symlinks truenamize &aux p

Coerces its argument into a pathname, optionally doing some transformations and checking specified constraints.

If the argument is nil, then nil is returned unless the want-pathname constraint is specified.

If the argument is a string, it is first converted to a pathname via parse-unix-namestring, parse-namestring or parse-native-namestring respectively depending on the namestring argument being :unix, :lisp or :native respectively, or else by using call-function on the namestring argument; if :unix is specified (or nil, the default, which specifies the same thing), then parse-unix-namestring it is called with the keywords defaults type dot-dot ensure-directory want-relative, and the result is optionally merged into the defaults if ensure-absolute is true.

The pathname passed or resulting from parsing the string is then subjected to all the checks and transformations below are run.

Each non-nil constraint argument can be one of the symbols t, error, cerror or ignore. The boolean t is an alias for error. error means that an error will be raised if the constraint is not satisfied. cerror means that an continuable error will be raised if the constraint is not satisfied. ignore means just return nil instead of the pathname.

The on-error argument, if not nil, is a function designator (as per call-function) that will be called with the the following arguments: a generic format string for ensure pathname, the pathname, the keyword argument corresponding to the failed check or transformation, a format string for the reason ensure-pathname failed, and a list with arguments to that format string. If on-error is nil, error is used instead, which does the right thing. You could also pass (cerror "continue despite failed check").

The transformations and constraint checks are done in this order, which is also the order in the lambda-list:

empty-is-nil returns nil if the argument is an empty string. want-pathname checks that pathname (after parsing if needed) is not null. Otherwise, if the pathname is nil, ensure-pathname returns nil. want-logical checks that pathname is a logical-pathname want-physical checks that pathname is not a logical-pathname ensure-physical ensures that pathname is physical via translate-logical-pathname want-relative checks that pathname has a relative directory component want-absolute checks that pathname does have an absolute directory component ensure-absolute merges with the defaults, then checks again that the result absolute is an absolute pathname indeed. ensure-subpath checks that the pathname is a subpath of the defaults. want-file checks that pathname has a non-nil file component want-directory checks that pathname has nil file and type components ensure-directory uses ensure-directory-pathname to interpret any file and type components as being actually a last directory component. want-non-wild checks that pathname is not a wild pathname want-wild checks that pathname is a wild pathname wilden merges the pathname with **/*.*.* if it is not wild want-existing checks that a file (or directory) exists with that pathname. ensure-directories-exist creates any parent directory with ensure-directories-exist. truename replaces the pathname by its truename, or errors if not possible. resolve-symlinks replaces the pathname by a variant with symlinks resolved by resolve-symlinks. truenamize uses truenamize to resolve as many symlinks as possible.

Function: file-pathname-p pathname

Does pathname represent a file, i.e. has a non-null name component?

Accepts nil, a string (converted through parse-namestring) or a pathname.

Note that this does _not_ check to see that pathname points to an actually-existing file.

Returns the (parsed) pathname when true

Function: hidden-pathname-p pathname

Return a boolean that is true if the pathname is hidden as per Unix style, i.e. its name starts with a dot.

Function: logical-pathname-p x

is x a logical-pathname?

Function: make-pathname-component-logical x

Make a pathname component suitable for use in a logical-pathname

Function: make-pathname-logical pathname host

Take a pathname’s directory, name, type and version components, and make a new pathname with corresponding components and specified logical host

Function: make-pathname* &rest keys &key directory host device name type version defaults

Takes arguments like cl:make-pathname in the CLHS, and tries hard to make a pathname that will actually behave as documented, despite the peculiarities of each implementation. deprecated: just use make-pathname.

Function: merge-pathname-directory-components specified defaults

Helper for merge-pathnames* that handles directory components

Function: merge-pathnames* specified &optional defaults

merge-pathnames* is like merge-pathnames except that if the specified pathname does not have an absolute directory, then the host and device both come from the defaults, whereas if the specified pathname does have an absolute directory, then the host and device both come from the specified pathname. This is what users want on a modern Unix or Windows operating system, unlike the merge-pathnames behavior. Also, if either argument is nil, then the other argument is returned unmodified; this is unlike merge-pathnames which always merges with a pathname, by default *default-pathname-defaults*, which cannot be nil.

Function: nil-pathname &optional defaults

A pathname that is as neutral as possible for use as defaults when merging, making or parsing pathnames

Function: normalize-pathname-directory-component directory

Convert the directory component from a format usable by the underlying implementation’s make-pathname and other primitives to a CLHS-standard format that is a list and not a string.

Function: parse-unix-namestring name &rest keys &key type defaults dot-dot ensure-directory &allow-other-keys

Coerce name into a pathname using standard Unix syntax.

Unix syntax is used whether or not the underlying system is Unix; on such non-Unix systems it is reliably usable only for relative pathnames. This function is especially useful to manipulate relative pathnames portably, where it is of crucial to possess a portable pathname syntax independent of the underlying OS. This is what parse-unix-namestring provides, and why we use it in ASDF.

When given a pathname object, just return it untouched. When given nil, just return nil. When given a non-null symbol, first downcase its name and treat it as a string. When given a string, portably decompose it into a pathname as below.

#\/ separates directory components.

The last #\/-separated substring is interpreted as follows: 1- If type is :directory or ensure-directory is true, the string is made the last directory component, and name and type are nil. if the string is empty, it’s the empty pathname with all slots nil. 2- If type is nil, the substring is a file-namestring, and its name and type are separated by split-name-type. 3- If type is a string, it is the given type, and the whole string is the name.

Directory components with an empty name or the name "." are removed. Any directory named ".." is read as dot-dot, which must be one of :back or :up and defaults to :back.

host, device and version components are taken from defaults, which itself defaults to *nil-pathname*, also used if defaults is nil. No host or device can be specified in the string itself, which makes it unsuitable for absolute pathnames outside Unix.

For relative pathnames, these components (and hence the defaults) won’t matter if you use merge-pathnames* but will matter if you use merge-pathnames, which is an important reason to always use merge-pathnames*.

Arbitrary keys are accepted, and the parse result is passed to ensure-pathname with those keys, removing type defaults and dot-dot. When you’re manipulating pathnames that are supposed to make sense portably even though the OS may not be Unixish, we recommend you use :want-relative t to throw an error if the pathname is absolute

Function: pathname-directory-pathname pathname

Returns a new pathname with same host, device, directory as pathname, and nil name, type and version components

Function: pathname-equal p1 p2

Are the two pathnames p1 and p2 reasonably equal in the paths they denote?

Function: pathname-host-pathname pathname

return a pathname with the same host as given pathname, and all other fields nil

Function: pathname-parent-directory-pathname pathname

Returns a new pathname that corresponds to the parent of the current pathname’s directory, i.e. removing one level of depth in the directory component. e.g. if pathname is Unix pathname /foo/bar/baz/file.type then return /foo/bar/

Function: pathname-root pathname

return the root directory for the host and device of given pathname

Function: physical-pathname-p x

is x a pathname that is not a logical-pathname?

Function: physicalize-pathname x

if x is a logical pathname, use translate-logical-pathname on it.

Function: relative-pathname-p pathspec

If pathspec is a pathname or namestring object that parses as a pathname possessing a :relative or nil directory component, return the (parsed) pathname. Otherwise return nil

Function: relativize-directory-component directory-component

Given the directory-component of a pathname, return an otherwise similar relative directory component

Function: relativize-pathname-directory pathspec

Given a pathname, return a relative pathname with otherwise the same components

Function: split-name-type filename

Split a filename into two values name and type that are returned. We assume filename has no directory component. The last . if any separates name and type from from type, except that if there is only one . and it is in first position, the whole filename is the name with an empty type. name is always a string. For an empty type, *unspecific-pathname-type* is returned.

Function: split-unix-namestring-directory-components unix-namestring &key ensure-directory dot-dot

Splits the path string unix-namestring, returning four values: A flag that is either :absolute or :relative, indicating how the rest of the values are to be interpreted. A directory path --- a list of strings and keywords, suitable for use with make-pathname when prepended with the flag value. Directory components with an empty name or the name . are removed. Any directory named .. is read as dot-dot, or :back if it’s nil (not :up). A last-component, either a file-namestring including type extension, or nil in the case of a directory pathname. A flag that is true iff the unix-style-pathname was just a file-namestring without / path specification. ensure-directory forces the namestring to be interpreted as a directory pathname: the third return value will be nil, and final component of the namestring will be treated as part of the directory path.

An empty string is thus read as meaning a pathname object with all fields nil.

Note that colon characters #: will not be interpreted as host specification. Absolute pathnames are only appropriate on Unix-style systems.

The intention of this function is to support structured component names, e.g., (:file "foo/bar"), which will be unpacked to relative pathnames.

Function: subpathname* pathname subpath &key type

returns nil if the base pathname is nil, otherwise like subpathname.

Function: subpathname pathname subpath &key type

This function takes a pathname and a subpath and a type. If subpath is already a pathname object (not namestring), and is an absolute pathname at that, it is returned unchanged; otherwise, subpath is turned into a relative pathname with given type as per parse-unix-namestring with :want-relative t :type type, then it is merged with the pathname-directory-pathname of pathname.

Function: subpathp maybe-subpath base-pathname

if maybe-subpath is a pathname that is under base-pathname, return a pathname object that when used with merge-pathnames* with defaults base-pathname, returns maybe-subpath.

Function: translate-pathname* path absolute-source destination &optional root source

A wrapper around translate-pathname to be used by the ASDF output-translations facility. path is the pathname to be translated. absolute-source is an absolute pathname to use as source for translate-pathname, destination is either a function, to be called with path and absolute-source, or a relative pathname, to be merged with root and used as destination for translate-pathname or an absolute pathname, to be used as destination for translate-pathname. In that last case, if root is non-NIL, path is first transformated by directorize-pathname-host-device.

Function: unix-namestring pathname

Given a non-wild pathname, return a Unix-style namestring for it. If the pathname is nil or a string, return it unchanged.

This only considers the directory, name and type components of the pathname. This is a portable solution for representing relative pathnames, But unless you are running on a Unix system, it is not a general solution to representing native pathnames.

An error is signaled if the argument is not null, a string or a pathname, or if it is a pathname but some of its components are not recognized.

Function: wilden path

From a pathname, return a wildcard pathname matching any file in any subdirectory of given pathname’s directory

Macro: with-enough-pathname (pathname-var &key pathname defaults) &body body

Shorthand syntax for call-with-enough-pathname

Macro: with-pathname-defaults (&optional defaults) &body body

Execute body in a context where the *default-pathname-defaults* is as specified, where leaving the defaults nil or unspecified means a (nil-pathname), except on ABCL, Genera and XCL, where it remains unchanged for it doubles as current-directory.

Variable: *nil-pathname*

A pathname that is as neutral as possible for use as defaults when merging, making or parsing pathnames

Variable: *output-translation-function*

Hook for output translations.

This function needs to be idempotent, so that actions can work whether their inputs were translated or not, which they will be if we are composing operations. e.g. if some create-lisp-op creates a lisp file from some higher-level input, you need to still be able to use compile-op on that lisp file.

Variable: *unspecific-pathname-type*

Unspecific type component to use with the underlying implementation’s make-pathname

Variable: *wild-directory*

A pathname object with wildcards for matching any subdirectory

Variable: *wild-file-for-directory*

A pathname object with wildcards for matching any file with directory

Variable: *wild-file*

A pathname object with wildcards for matching any file with translate-pathname

Variable: *wild-inferiors*

A pathname object with wildcards for matching any recursive subdirectory

Variable: *wild-path*

A pathname object with wildcards for matching any file in any recursive subdirectory

Variable: *wild*

Wild component for use with make-pathname


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8 UIOP/FILESYSTEM

Function: call-with-current-directory dir thunk

call the thunk in a context where the current directory was changed to dir, if not nil. Note that this operation is usually not thread-safe.

Function: collect-sub*directories directory collectp recursep collector

Given a directory, when collectp returns true when call-function’ed with the directory, call-function the collector function designator on the directory, and recurse each of its subdirectories on which the recursep returns true when call-function’ed with them. This function will thus let you traverse a filesystem hierarchy, superseding the functionality of cl-fad:walk-directory. The behavior in presence of symlinks is not portable. Use IOlib to handle such situations.

Function: delete-directory-tree directory-pathname &key validate if-does-not-exist

Delete a directory including all its recursive contents, aka rm -rf.

To reduce the risk of infortunate mistakes, directory-pathname must be a physical non-wildcard directory pathname (not namestring).

If the directory does not exist, the if-does-not-exist argument specifies what happens: if it is :error (the default), an error is signaled, whereas if it is :ignore, nothing is done.

Furthermore, before any deletion is attempted, the directory-pathname must pass the validation function designated (as per ensure-function) by the validate keyword argument which in practice is thus compulsory, and validates by returning a non-NIL result. If you’re suicidal or extremely confident, just use :validate t.

Function: delete-empty-directory directory-pathname

Delete an empty directory

Function: delete-file-if-exists x

Delete a file x if it already exists

Function: directory-exists-p x

Is x the name of a directory that exists on the filesystem?

Function: directory-files directory &optional pattern

Return a list of the files in a directory according to the pattern. Subdirectories should not be returned. pattern defaults to a pattern carefully chosen based on the implementation; override the default at your own risk. directory-files tries not to resolve symlinks if the implementation permits this, but the behavior in presence of symlinks is not portable. Use IOlib to handle such situations.

Function: directory* pathname-spec &rest keys &key &allow-other-keys

Return a list of the entries in a directory by calling directory. Try to override the defaults to not resolving symlinks, if implementation allows.

Function: ensure-all-directories-exist pathnames

Ensure that for every pathname in pathnames, we ensure its directories exist

Function: file-exists-p x

Is x the name of a file that exists on the filesystem?

Function: filter-logical-directory-results directory entries merger

If directory isn’t a logical pathname, return entries. If it is, given entries in the directory, remove the entries which are physical yet when transformed by merger have a different truename. Also remove duplicates as may appear with some translation rules. This function is used as a helper to directory-files to avoid invalid entries when using logical-pathnames.

Function: get-pathname-defaults &optional defaults

Find the actual defaults to use for pathnames, including resolving them with respect to getcwd if the defaults were relative

Function: getenv-absolute-directories x

Extract a list of absolute directories from a user-configured environment variable, as per native OS. Any empty entries in the environment variable x will be returned as NILs.

Function: getenv-absolute-directory x

Extract an absolute directory pathname from a user-configured environment variable, as per native OS

Function: getenv-pathname x &rest constraints &key ensure-directory want-directory on-error &allow-other-keys

Extract a pathname from a user-configured environment variable, as per native OS, check constraints and normalize as per ensure-pathname.

Function: getenv-pathnames x &rest constraints &key on-error &allow-other-keys

Extract a list of pathname from a user-configured environment variable, as per native OS, check constraints and normalize each one as per ensure-pathname. Any empty entries in the environment variable x will be returned as NILs.

Function: inter-directory-separator

What character does the current OS conventionally uses to separate directories?

Function: lisp-implementation-directory &key truename

Where are the system files of the current installation of the CL implementation?

Function: lisp-implementation-pathname-p pathname

Is the pathname under the current installation of the CL implementation?

Function: native-namestring x

From a non-wildcard CL pathname, a return namestring suitable for passing to the operating system

Function: parse-native-namestring string &rest constraints &key ensure-directory &allow-other-keys

From a native namestring suitable for use by the operating system, return a CL pathname satisfying all the specified constraints as per ensure-pathname

Function: probe-file* p &key truename

when given a pathname p (designated by a string as per parse-namestring), probes the filesystem for a file or directory with given pathname. If it exists, return its truename if truename is true, or the original (parsed) pathname if it is false (the default).

Function: rename-file-overwriting-target source target

Rename a file, overwriting any previous file with the target name, in an atomic way if the implementation allows.

Function: resolve-symlinks* path

resolve-symlinks in path iff *resolve-symlinks* is t (the default).

Function: resolve-symlinks path

Do a best effort at resolving symlinks in path, returning a partially or totally resolved path.

Function: safe-file-write-date pathname

Safe variant of file-write-date that may return nil rather than raise an error.

Function: split-native-pathnames-string string &rest constraints &key &allow-other-keys

Given a string of pathnames specified in native OS syntax, separate them in a list, check constraints and normalize each one as per ensure-pathname, where an empty string denotes nil.

Function: subdirectories directory

Given a directory pathname designator, return a list of the subdirectories under it. The behavior in presence of symlinks is not portable. Use IOlib to handle such situations.

Function: truename* p

Nicer variant of truename that plays well with nil, avoids logical pathname contexts, and tries both files and directories

Function: truenamize pathname

Resolve as much of a pathname as possible

Macro: with-current-directory (&optional dir) &body body

Call body while the POSIX current working directory is set to dir

Variable: *resolve-symlinks*

Determine whether or not ASDF resolves symlinks when defining systems. Defaults to t.


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9 UIOP/STREAM

Function: add-pathname-suffix pathname suffix &rest keys

Add a suffix to the name of a pathname, return a new pathname. Further keys can be passed to make-pathname.

Function: always-default-encoding pathname

Trivial function to use as *encoding-detection-hook*, always ’detects’ the *default-encoding*

Function: call-with-input-file pathname thunk &key element-type external-format if-does-not-exist

Open file for input with given recognizes options, call thunk with the resulting stream. Other keys are accepted but discarded.

Function: call-with-null-input fun &rest keys &key element-type external-format if-does-not-exist

Call fun with an input stream from the null device; pass keyword arguments to open.

Function: call-with-null-output fun &key element-type external-format if-exists if-does-not-exist

Call fun with an output stream to the null device; pass keyword arguments to open.

Function: call-with-output-file pathname thunk &key element-type external-format if-exists if-does-not-exist

Open file for input with given recognizes options, call thunk with the resulting stream. Other keys are accepted but discarded.

Function: call-with-staging-pathname pathname fun

Calls fun with a staging pathname, and atomically renames the staging pathname to the pathname in the end. nb: this protects only against failure of the program, not against concurrent attempts. For the latter case, we ought pick a random suffix and atomically open it.

Function: call-with-temporary-file thunk &key want-stream-p want-pathname-p direction keep after directory type prefix suffix element-type external-format

Call a thunk with stream and/or pathname arguments identifying a temporary file.

The temporary file’s pathname will be based on concatenating prefix (or "tmp" if it’s nil), a random alphanumeric string, and optional suffix (defaults to "-tmp" if a type was provided) and type (defaults to "tmp", using a dot as separator if not nil), within directory (defaulting to the temporary-directory) if the prefix isn’t absolute.

The file will be open with specified direction (defaults to :io), element-type (defaults to *default-stream-element-type*) and external-format (defaults to *utf-8-external-format*). If want-stream-p is true (the defaults to t), then thunk will then be call-function’ed with the stream and the pathname (if want-pathname-p is true, defaults to t), and stream will be closed after the thunk exits (either normally or abnormally). If want-stream-p is false, then want-pathame-p must be true, and then thunk is only call-function’ed after the stream is closed, with the pathname as argument. Upon exit of thunk, the after thunk if defined is call-function’ed with the pathname as argument. If after is defined, its results are returned, otherwise, the results of thunk are returned. Finally, the file will be deleted, unless the keep argument when call-function’ed returns true.

Function: concatenate-files inputs output

create a new output file the contents of which a the concatenate of the inputs files.

Function: copy-file input output

Copy contents of the input file to the output file

Function: copy-stream-to-stream input output &key element-type buffer-size linewise prefix

Copy the contents of the input stream into the output stream. If linewise is true, then read and copy the stream line by line, with an optional prefix. Otherwise, using write-sequence using a buffer of size buffer-size.

Function: default-encoding-external-format encoding

Default, ignorant, function to transform a character encoding as a portable keyword to an implementation-dependent external-format specification. Load system asdf-encodings to hook in a better one.

Function: default-temporary-directory

Return a default directory to use for temporary files

Function: detect-encoding pathname

Detects the encoding of a specified file, going through user-configurable hooks

Function: encoding-external-format encoding

Transform a portable encoding keyword to an implementation-dependent external-format, going through all the proper hooks.

Function: eval-input input

Portably read and evaluate forms from input, return the last values.

Function: eval-thunk thunk

Evaluate a thunk of code: If a function, funcall it without arguments. If a constant literal and not a sequence, return it. If a cons or a symbol, eval it. If a string, repeatedly read and evaluate from it, returning the last values.

Function: finish-outputs &rest streams

Finish output on the main output streams as well as any specified one. Useful for portably flushing I/O before user input or program exit.

Function: format! stream format &rest args

Just like format, but call finish-outputs before and after the output.

Function: input-string &optional input

If the desired input is a string, return that string; otherwise slurp the input into a string and return that

Function: null-device-pathname

Pathname to a bit bucket device that discards any information written to it and always returns eof when read from

Function: output-string string &optional output

If the desired output is not nil, print the string to the output; otherwise return the string

Function: println x &optional stream

Variant of princ that also calls terpri afterwards

Function: read-file-form file &rest keys &key at &allow-other-keys

Open input file with option keys (except at), and read its contents as per slurp-stream-form with given at specifier. beware: be sure to use with-safe-io-syntax, or some variant thereof

Function: read-file-forms file &rest keys &key count &allow-other-keys

Open input file with option keys (except count), and read its contents as per slurp-stream-forms with given count. beware: be sure to use with-safe-io-syntax, or some variant thereof

Function: read-file-line file &rest keys &key at &allow-other-keys

Open input file with option keys (except at), and read its contents as per slurp-stream-line with given at specifier. beware: be sure to use with-safe-io-syntax, or some variant thereof

Function: read-file-lines file &rest keys

Open file with option keys, read its contents as a list of lines beware: be sure to use with-safe-io-syntax, or some variant thereof

Function: read-file-string file &rest keys

Open file with option keys, read its contents as a string

Function: safe-format! stream format &rest args

Variant of format that is safe against both dangerous syntax configuration and errors while printing.

Function: safe-read-file-form pathname &rest keys &key package &allow-other-keys

Reads the specified form from the top of a file using a safe standardized syntax. Extracts the form using read-file-form, within an with-safe-io-syntax using the specified package.

Function: safe-read-file-line pathname &rest keys &key package &allow-other-keys

Reads the specified line from the top of a file using a safe standardized syntax. Extracts the line using read-file-line, within an with-safe-io-syntax using the specified package.

Function: safe-read-from-string string &key package eof-error-p eof-value start end preserve-whitespace

Read from string using a safe syntax, as per with-safe-io-syntax

Function: setup-temporary-directory

Configure a default temporary directory to use.

Function: slurp-stream-form input &key at

Read the contents of the input stream as a list of forms, then return the access-at of these forms following the at. at defaults to 0, i.e. return the first form. at is typically a list of integers. If at is nil, it will return all the forms in the file.

The stream will not be read beyond the Nth form, where n is the index specified by path, if path is either an integer or a list that starts with an integer.

beware: be sure to use with-safe-io-syntax, or some variant thereof

Function: slurp-stream-forms input &key count

Read the contents of the input stream as a list of forms, and return those forms.

If count is null, read to the end of the stream; if count is an integer, stop after count forms were read.

beware: be sure to use with-safe-io-syntax, or some variant thereof

Function: slurp-stream-line input &key at

Read the contents of the input stream as a list of lines, then return the access-at of that list of lines using the at specifier. path defaults to 0, i.e. return the first line. path is typically an integer, or a list of an integer and a function. If path is nil, it will return all the lines in the file.

The stream will not be read beyond the Nth lines, where n is the index specified by path if path is either an integer or a list that starts with an integer.

Function: slurp-stream-lines input &key count

Read the contents of the input stream as a list of lines, return those lines.

Note: relies on the Lisp’s read-line, but additionally removes any remaining CR from the line-ending if the file or stream had CR+LF but Lisp only removed LF.

Read no more than count lines.

Function: slurp-stream-string input &key element-type stripped

Read the contents of the input stream as a string

Function: standard-eval-thunk thunk &key package

Like eval-thunk, but in a more standardized evaluation context.

Function: temporary-directory

Return a directory to use for temporary files

Function: tmpize-pathname x

Return a new pathname modified from x by adding a trivial random suffix. A new empty file with said temporary pathname is created, to ensure there is no clash with any concurrent process attempting the same thing.

Function: writeln x &rest keys &key stream &allow-other-keys

Variant of write that also calls terpri afterwards

Macro: with-input (input-var &optional value) &body body

Bind input-var to an input stream, coercing value (default: previous binding of input-var) as per call-with-input, and evaluate body within the scope of this binding.

Macro: with-null-input (var &rest keys &key element-type external-format if-does-not-exist) &body body

Evaluate body in a context when var is bound to an input stream accessing the null device. Pass keyword arguments to open.

Macro: with-null-output (var &rest keys &key element-type external-format if-does-not-exist if-exists) &body body

Evaluate body in a context when var is bound to an output stream accessing the null device. Pass keyword arguments to open.

Macro: with-output (output-var &optional value) &body body

Bind output-var to an output stream, coercing value (default: previous binding of output-var) as per format, and evaluate body within the scope of this binding.

Macro: with-safe-io-syntax (&key package) &body body

Establish safe CL reader options around the evaluation of body

Macro: with-staging-pathname (pathname-var &optional pathname-value) &body body

Trivial syntax wrapper for call-with-staging-pathname

Macro: with-temporary-file (&key stream pathname directory prefix suffix type keep direction element-type external-format) &body body

Evaluate body where the symbols specified by keyword arguments stream and pathname (if respectively specified) are bound corresponding to a newly created temporary file ready for I/O, as per call-with-temporary-file. At least one of stream or pathname must be specified. If the stream is not specified, it will be closed before the body is evaluated. If stream is specified, then the :close-stream label if it appears in the body, separates forms run before and after the stream is closed. The values of the last form of the body (not counting the separating :close-stream) are returned. Upon success, the keep form is evaluated and the file is is deleted unless it evaluates to true.

Variable: *default-encoding*

Default encoding for source files. The default value :utf-8 is the portable thing. The legacy behavior was :default. If you (asdf:load-system :asdf-encodings) then you will have autodetection via *encoding-detection-hook* below, reading emacs-style -*- coding: utf-8 -*- specifications, and falling back to utf-8 or latin1 if nothing is specified.

Variable: *default-stream-element-type*

default element-type for open (depends on the current CL implementation)

Variable: *encoding-detection-hook*

Hook for an extension to define a function to automatically detect a file’s encoding

Variable: *encoding-external-format-hook*

Hook for an extension (e.g. asdf-encodings) to define a better mapping from non-default encodings to and implementation-defined external-format’s

Variable: *stderr*

the original error output stream at startup

Variable: *stdin*

the original standard input stream at startup

Variable: *stdout*

the original standard output stream at startup

Variable: *temporary-directory*

User-configurable location for temporary files

Variable: *utf-8-external-format*

Default :external-format argument to pass to cl:open and also cl:load or cl:compile-file to best process a utf-8 encoded file. On modern implementations, this will decode utf-8 code points as CL characters. On legacy implementations, it may fall back on some 8-bit encoding, with non-ASCII code points being read as several CL characters; hopefully, if done consistently, that won’t affect program behavior too much.


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10 UIOP/IMAGE

Function: argv0

On supported implementations (most that matter), or when invoked by a proper wrapper script, return a string that for the name with which the program was invoked, i.e. argv[0] in c. Otherwise, return nil.

Function: call-image-dump-hook

Call the hook functions registered to be run before to dump an image

Function: call-image-restore-hook

Call the hook functions registered to be run when restoring a dumped image

Function: call-with-fatal-condition-handler thunk

Call thunk in a context where fatal conditions are appropriately handled

Function: command-line-arguments &optional arguments

Extract user arguments from command-line invocation of current process. Assume the calling conventions of a generated script that uses -- if we are not called from a directly executable image.

Function: create-image destination lisp-object-files &key kind output-name prologue-code epilogue-code extra-object-files prelude postlude entry-point build-args no-uiop

On ECL, create an executable at pathname destination from the specified object-files and options

Function: die code format &rest arguments

Die in error with some error message

Function: dump-image filename &key output-name executable postlude dump-hook compression

Dump an image of the current Lisp environment at pathname filename, with various options.

First, finalize the image, by evaluating the postlude as per eval-input, then calling each of the functions in dump-hook, in reverse order of registration by register-dump-hook.

If executable is true, create an standalone executable program that calls restore-image on startup.

Pass various implementation-defined options, such as prepend-symbols and purity on CCL, or compression on SBCL, and application-type on SBCL/Windows.

Function: fatal-condition-p condition

Is the condition fatal?

Function: handle-fatal-condition condition

Handle a fatal condition: depending on whether *lisp-interaction* is set, enter debugger or die

Function: print-backtrace &rest keys &key stream count condition

Print a backtrace

Function: print-condition-backtrace condition &key stream count

Print a condition after a backtrace triggered by that condition

Function: quit &optional code finish-output

Quits from the Lisp world, with the given exit status if provided. This is designed to abstract away the implementation specific quit forms.

Function: raw-command-line-arguments

Find what the actual command line for this process was.

Function: raw-print-backtrace &key stream count condition

Print a backtrace, directly accessing the implementation

Function: register-image-dump-hook hook &optional call-now-p

Register a the hook function to be run before to dump an image

Function: register-image-restore-hook hook &optional call-now-p

Regiter a hook function to be run when restoring a dumped image

Function: restore-image &key lisp-interaction restore-hook prelude entry-point if-already-restored

From a freshly restarted Lisp image, restore the saved Lisp environment by setting appropriate variables, running various hooks, and calling any specified entry point.

If the image has already been restored or is already being restored, as per *image-restored-p*, call the if-already-restored error handler (by default, a continuable error), and do return immediately to the surrounding restore process if allowed to continue.

Then, comes the restore process itself: First, call each function in the restore-hook, in the order they were registered with register-image-restore-hook. Second, evaluate the prelude, which is often Lisp text that is read, as per eval-input. Third, call the entry-point function, if any is specified, with no argument.

The restore process happens in a with-fatal-condition-handler, so that if lisp-interaction is nil, any unhandled error leads to a backtrace and an exit with an error status. If lisp-interaction is nil, the process also exits when no error occurs: if neither restart nor entry function is provided, the program will exit with status 0 (success); if a function was provided, the program will exit after the function returns (if it returns), with status 0 if and only if the primary return value of result is generalized boolean true, and with status 1 if this value is nil.

If lisp-interaction is true, unhandled errors will take you to the debugger, and the result of the function will be returned rather than interpreted as a boolean designating an exit code.

Function: shell-boolean-exit x

Quit with a return code that is 0 iff argument x is true

Macro: with-fatal-condition-handler (&optional) &body body

Execute body in a context where fatal conditions are appropriately handled

Variable: *command-line-arguments*

Command-line arguments

Variable: *image-dump-hook*

Functions to call (in order) when before an image is dumped

Variable: *image-dumped-p*

Is this a dumped image? As a standalone executable?

Variable: *image-entry-point*

a function with which to restart the dumped image when execution is restored from it.

Variable: *image-postlude*

a form to evaluate, or string containing forms to read and evaluate before the image dump hooks are called and before the image is dumped.

Variable: *image-prelude*

a form to evaluate, or string containing forms to read and evaluate when the image is restarted, but before the entry point is called.

Variable: *image-restore-hook*

Functions to call (in reverse order) when the image is restored

Variable: *lisp-interaction*

Is this an interactive Lisp environment, or is it batch processing?


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11 UIOP/LISP-BUILD

Function: call-around-hook hook function

Call a hook around the execution of function

Function: call-with-muffled-compiler-conditions thunk

Call given thunk in a context where uninteresting conditions and compiler conditions are muffled

Function: call-with-muffled-loader-conditions thunk

Call given thunk in a context where uninteresting conditions and loader conditions are muffled

Function: check-deferred-warnings files &optional context-format context-arguments

Given a list of files containing deferred warnings saved by call-with-saved-deferred-warnings, re-intern and raise any warnings that are still meaningful.

Function: check-lisp-compile-results output warnings-p failure-p &optional context-format context-arguments

Given the results of compile-file, raise an error or warning as appropriate

Function: check-lisp-compile-warnings warnings-p failure-p &optional context-format context-arguments

Given the warnings or failures as resulted from compile-file or checking deferred warnings, raise an error or warning as appropriate

Function: combine-fasls inputs output

Combine a list of FASLs inputs into a single FASL output

Function: compile-file-pathname* input-file &rest keys &key output-file &allow-other-keys

Variant of compile-file-pathname that works well with compile-file*

Function: compile-file* input-file &rest keys &key compile-check output-file warnings-file emit-cfasl &allow-other-keys

This function provides a portable wrapper around compile-file. It ensures that the output-file value is only returned and the file only actually created if the compilation was successful, even though your implementation may not do that. It also checks an optional user-provided consistency function compile-check to determine success; it will call this function if not nil at the end of the compilation with the arguments sent to compile-file*, except with :output-file tmp-file where tmp-file is the name of a temporary output-file. It also checks two flags (with legacy british spelling from asdf1), *compile-file-failure-behaviour* and *compile-file-warnings-behaviour* with appropriate implementation-dependent defaults, and if a failure (respectively warnings) are reported by compile-file, it will consider that an error unless the respective behaviour flag is one of :success :warn :ignore. If warnings-file is defined, deferred warnings are saved to that file. On ECL or MKCL, it creates both the linkable object and loadable fasl files. On implementations that erroneously do not recognize standard keyword arguments, it will filter them appropriately.

Function: compile-file-type &rest keys

pathname type for lisp FASt Loading files

Function: current-lisp-file-pathname

Portably return the pathname of the current Lisp source file being compiled or loaded

Function: disable-deferred-warnings-check

Disable the saving of deferred warnings

Function: enable-deferred-warnings-check

Enable the saving of deferred warnings

Function: get-optimization-settings

Get current compiler optimization settings, ready to proclaim again

Function: lispize-pathname input-file

From a input-file pathname, return a corresponding .lisp source pathname

Function: load-from-string string

Portably read and evaluate forms from a string.

Function: load-pathname

Portably return the load-pathname of the current source file or fasl

Function: load* x &rest keys &key &allow-other-keys

Portable wrapper around load that properly handles loading from a stream.

Function: proclaim-optimization-settings

Proclaim the optimization settings in *optimization-settings*

Function: reify-deferred-warnings

return a portable S-expression, portably readable and writeable in any Common Lisp implementation using read within a with-safe-io-syntax, that represents the warnings currently deferred by with-compilation-unit. One of three functions required for deferred-warnings support in ASDF.

Function: reify-simple-sexp sexp

Given a simple sexp, return a representation of it as a portable sexp. Simple means made of symbols, numbers, characters, simple-strings, pathnames, cons cells.

Function: reset-deferred-warnings

Reset the set of deferred warnings to be handled at the end of the current with-compilation-unit. One of three functions required for deferred-warnings support in ASDF.

Function: save-deferred-warnings warnings-file

Save forward reference conditions so they may be issued at a latter time, possibly in a different process.

Function: unreify-deferred-warnings reified-deferred-warnings

given a S-expression created by reify-deferred-warnings, reinstantiate the corresponding deferred warnings as to be handled at the end of the current with-compilation-unit. Handle any warning that has been resolved already, such as an undefined function that has been defined since. One of three functions required for deferred-warnings support in ASDF.

Function: unreify-simple-sexp sexp

Given the portable output of reify-simple-sexp, return the simple sexp it represents

Function: warnings-file-p file &optional implementation-type

Is file a saved warnings file for the given implementation-type? If that given type is nil, use the currently configured *warnings-file-type* instead.

Function: warnings-file-type &optional implementation-type

The pathname type for warnings files on given implementation-type, where nil designates the current one

Macro: with-muffled-compiler-conditions (&optional) &body body

Trivial syntax for call-with-muffled-compiler-conditions

Macro: with-muffled-loader-conditions (&optional) &body body

Trivial syntax for call-with-muffled-loader-conditions

Macro: with-saved-deferred-warnings (warnings-file &key source-namestring) &body body

Trivial syntax for call-with-saved-deferred-warnings

Variable: *base-build-directory*

When set to a non-null value, it should be an absolute directory pathname, which will serve as the *default-pathname-defaults* around a compile-file, what more while the input-file is shortened if possible to enough-pathname relative to it. This can help you produce more deterministic output for FASLs.

Variable: *compile-check*

A hook for user-defined compile-time invariants

Variable: *compile-file-failure-behaviour*

How should ASDF react if it encounters a failure (per the ANSI spec of compile-file) when compiling a file, which includes any non-style-warning warning. Valid values are :error, :warn, and :ignore. Note that ASDF always raises an error if it fails to create an output file when compiling.

Variable: *compile-file-warnings-behaviour*

How should ASDF react if it encounters a warning when compiling a file? Valid values are :error, :warn, and :ignore.

Variable: *optimization-settings*

Optimization settings to be used by proclaim-optimization-settings

Variable: *output-translation-function*

Hook for output translations.

This function needs to be idempotent, so that actions can work whether their inputs were translated or not, which they will be if we are composing operations. e.g. if some create-lisp-op creates a lisp file from some higher-level input, you need to still be able to use compile-op on that lisp file.

Variable: *previous-optimization-settings*

Optimization settings saved by proclaim-optimization-settings

Variable: *uninteresting-compiler-conditions*

Additional conditions that may be skipped while compiling Lisp code.

Variable: *uninteresting-conditions*

Conditions that may be skipped while compiling or loading Lisp code.

Variable: *uninteresting-loader-conditions*

Additional conditions that may be skipped while loading Lisp code.

Variable: *usual-uninteresting-conditions*

A suggested value to which to set or bind *uninteresting-conditions*.

Variable: *warnings-file-type*

Pathname type for warnings files, or nil if disabled


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12 UIOP/LAUNCH-PROGRAM

uiop/launch-program semi-portably launches a program as an asynchronous external subprocess. Available functionality may depend on the underlying implementation.

Function: close-streams process-info

Close any stream that the process might own. Needs to be run whenever streams were requested by passing :stream to :input, :output, or :error-output.

Function: easy-sh-character-p x

Is x an "easy" character that does not require quoting by the shell?

Function: escape-command command &optional s escaper

Given a command as a list of tokens, return a string of the spaced, escaped tokens, using escaper to escape.

Function: escape-sh-command command &optional s

Escape a list of command-line arguments into a string suitable for parsing by /bin/sh in POSIX

Function: escape-sh-token token &optional s

Escape a string token within double-quotes if needed for use within a POSIX Bourne shell, outputing to s.

Function: escape-shell-command command &optional stream

Escape a command for the current operating system’s shell

Function: escape-shell-token token &optional s

Escape a token for the current operating system shell

Function: escape-token token &key stream quote good-chars bad-chars escaper

Call the escaper function on token string if it needs escaping as per requires-escaping-p using good-chars and bad-chars, otherwise output token, using stream as output (or returning result as a string if nil)

Function: escape-windows-command command &optional s

Escape a list of command-line arguments into a string suitable for parsing by CommandLineToArgv in ms Windows

Function: escape-windows-token token &optional s

Escape a string token within double-quotes if needed for use within a ms Windows command-line, outputing to s.

Function: launch-program command &rest keys &key input if-input-does-not-exist output if-output-exists error-output if-error-output-exists element-type external-format directory &allow-other-keys

Launch program specified by command, either a list of strings specifying a program and list of arguments, or a string specifying a shell command (/bin/sh on Unix, cmd.exe on Windows) _asynchronously_.

If output is a pathname, a string designating a pathname, or nil (the default) designating the null device, the file at that path is used as output. If it’s :interactive, output is inherited from the current process; beware that this may be different from your *standard-output*, and under slime will be on your *inferior-lisp* buffer. If it’s t, output goes to your current *standard-output* stream. If it’s :stream, a new stream will be made available that can be accessed via process-info-output and read from. Otherwise, output should be a value that the underlying lisp implementation knows how to handle.

if-output-exists, which is only meaningful if output is a string or a pathname, can take the values :error, :append, and :supersede (the default). The meaning of these values and their effect on the case where output does not exist, is analogous to the if-exists parameter to open with :direction :output.

error-output is similar to output. t designates the *error-output*, :output means redirecting the error output to the output stream, and :stream causes a stream to be made available via process-info-error-output.

if-error-output-exists is similar to if-output-exist, except that it affects error-output rather than output.

input is similar to output, except that t designates the *standard-input* and a stream requested through the :stream keyword would be available through process-info-input.

if-input-does-not-exist, which is only meaningful if input is a string or a pathname, can take the values :create and :error (the default). The meaning of these values is analogous to the if-does-not-exist parameter to open with :direction :input.

element-type and external-format are passed on to your Lisp implementation, when applicable, for creation of the output stream.

launch-program returns a process-info object.

Function: process-alive-p process-info

Check if a process has yet to exit.

Function: terminate-process process-info &key urgent

Cause the process to exit. To that end, the process may or may not be sent a signal, which it will find harder (or even impossible) to ignore if urgent is t. On some platforms, it may also be subject to race conditions.

Function: wait-process process-info

Wait for the process to terminate, if it is still running. Otherwise, return immediately. An exit code (a number) will be returned, with 0 indicating success, and anything else indicating failure. If the process exits after receiving a signal, the exit code will be the sum of 128 and the (positive) numeric signal code. A second value may be returned in this case: the numeric signal code itself. Any asynchronously spawned process requires this function to be run before it is garbage-collected in order to free up resources that might otherwise be irrevocably lost.


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13 UIOP/RUN-PROGRAM

uiop/run-program fully portably runs a program as a synchronous external subprocess.

Function: run-program command &rest keys &key ignore-error-status force-shell input if-input-does-not-exist output if-output-exists error-output if-error-output-exists element-type external-format &allow-other-keys

Run program specified by command, either a list of strings specifying a program and list of arguments, or a string specifying a shell command (/bin/sh on Unix, cmd.exe on Windows); _synchronously_ process its output as specified and return the processing results when the program and its output processing are complete.

Always call a shell (rather than directly execute the command when possible) if force-shell is specified. Similarly, never call a shell if force-shell is specified to be nil.

Signal a continuable subprocess-error if the process wasn’t successful (exit-code 0), unless ignore-error-status is specified.

If output is a pathname, a string designating a pathname, or nil (the default) designating the null device, the file at that path is used as output. If it’s :interactive, output is inherited from the current process; beware that this may be different from your *standard-output*, and under slime will be on your *inferior-lisp* buffer. If it’s t, output goes to your current *standard-output* stream. Otherwise, output should be a value that is a suitable first argument to slurp-input-stream (qv.), or a list of such a value and keyword arguments. In this case, run-program will create a temporary stream for the program output; the program output, in that stream, will be processed by a call to slurp-input-stream, using output as the first argument (or the first element of output, and the rest as keywords). The primary value resulting from that call (or nil if no call was needed) will be the first value returned by run-program. e.g., using :output :string will have it return the entire output stream as a string. And using :output ’(:string :stripped t) will have it return the same string stripped of any ending newline.

if-output-exists, which is only meaningful if output is a string or a pathname, can take the values :error, :append, and :supersede (the default). The meaning of these values and their effect on the case where output does not exist, is analogous to the if-exists parameter to open with :direction :output.

error-output is similar to output, except that the resulting value is returned as the second value of run-program. t designates the *error-output*. Also :output means redirecting the error output to the output stream, in which case nil is returned.

if-error-output-exists is similar to if-output-exist, except that it affects error-output rather than output.

input is similar to output, except that vomit-output-stream is used, no value is returned, and t designates the *standard-input*.

if-input-does-not-exist, which is only meaningful if input is a string or a pathname, can take the values :create and :error (the default). The meaning of these values is analogous to the if-does-not-exist parameter to open with :direction :input.

element-type and external-format are passed on to your Lisp implementation, when applicable, for creation of the output stream.

One and only one of the stream slurping or vomiting may or may not happen in parallel in parallel with the subprocess, depending on options and implementation, and with priority being given to output processing. Other streams are completely produced or consumed before or after the subprocess is spawned, using temporary files.

run-program returns 3 values: 0- the result of the output slurping if any, or nil 1- the result of the error-output slurping if any, or nil 2- either 0 if the subprocess exited with success status, or an indication of failure via the exit-code of the process

Generic Function: slurp-input-stream processor input-stream &key linewise prefix element-type buffer-size external-format if-exists if-does-not-exist at count stripped &allow-other-keys

slurp-input-stream is a generic function with two positional arguments processor and input-stream and additional keyword arguments, that consumes (slurps) the contents of the input-stream and processes them according to a method specified by processor.

Built-in methods include the following:

Programmers are encouraged to define their own methods for this generic function.

Generic Function: vomit-output-stream processor output-stream &key linewise prefix element-type buffer-size external-format if-exists if-does-not-exist fresh-line terpri &allow-other-keys

vomit-output-stream is a generic function with two positional arguments processor and output-stream and additional keyword arguments, that produces (vomits) some content onto the output-stream, according to a method specified by processor.

Built-in methods include the following:

Programmers are encouraged to define their own methods for this generic function.


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14 UIOP/CONFIGURATION

Function: clear-configuration

Call the functions in *clear-configuration-hook*

Function: configuration-inheritance-directive-p x

Is x a configuration inheritance directive?

Function: filter-pathname-set dirs

Parse strings as unix namestrings and remove duplicates and non absolute-pathnames in a list.

Function: find-preferred-file files &key direction

Find first file in the list of files that exists (for direction :input or :probe) or just the first one (for direction :output or :io). Note that when we say "file" here, the files in question may be directories.

Function: get-folder-path folder

Semi-portable implementation of a subset of LispWorks’ sys:get-folder-path, this function tries to locate the Windows folder for one of :local-appdata, :appdata or :common-appdata. Returns nil when the folder is not defined (e.g., not on Windows).

Function: in-first-directory dirs x &key direction

Finds the first appropriate file named x in the list of dirs for I/O in direction (which may be :input, :output, :io, or :probe). If direction is :input or :probe, will return the first extant file named x in one of the dirs. If direction is :output or :io, will simply return the file named x in the first element of dirs that exists. deprecated.

Function: in-system-configuration-directory x &key direction

Return the pathname for the file named x under the system configuration directory for common-lisp. deprecated.

Function: in-user-configuration-directory x &key direction

Return the file named x in the user configuration directory for common-lisp. deprecated.

Function: location-designator-p x

Is x a designator for a location?

Function: location-function-p x

Is x the specification of a location function?

Function: register-clear-configuration-hook hook-function &optional call-now-p

Register a function to be called when clearing configuration

Function: report-invalid-form reporter &rest args

Report an invalid form according to reporter and various args

Function: resolve-absolute-location x &key ensure-directory wilden

Given a designator x for an absolute location, resolve it to a pathname

Function: resolve-location x &key ensure-directory wilden directory

Resolve location designator x into a pathname

Function: resolve-relative-location x &key ensure-directory wilden

Given a designator x for an relative location, resolve it to a pathname.

Function: system-config-pathnames &rest more

Return a list of directories where are stored the system’s default user configuration information. more may contain specifications for a subpath relative to these directories: a subpathname specification and keyword arguments as per resolve-location (see also "Configuration DSL") in the ASDF manual.

Function: system-configuration-directories

Return the list of system configuration directories for common-lisp. deprecated. Use uiop:config-system-pathnames instead.

Function: uiop-directory

Try to locate the uiop source directory at runtime

Function: upgrade-configuration

If a previous version of ASDF failed to read some configuration, try again now.

Function: user-configuration-directories

Return the current user’s list of user configuration directories for configuring common-lisp. deprecated. Use uiop:xdg-config-pathnames instead.

Function: validate-configuration-directory directory tag validator &key invalid-form-reporter

Map the validator across the .conf files in directory, the tag will be applied to the results to yield a configuration form. Current values of tag include :source-registry and :output-translations.

Function: validate-configuration-file file validator &key description

Validate a configuration file. The configuration file should have only one s-expression in it, which will be checked with the validator form. description argument used for error reporting.

Function: validate-configuration-form form tag directive-validator &key location invalid-form-reporter

Validate a configuration form. By default it will raise an error if the form is not valid. Otherwise it will return the validated form. Arguments control the behavior: The configuration form should be of the form (tag . <rest>) Each element of <rest> will be checked by first seeing if it’s a configuration inheritance directive (see configuration-inheritance-directive-p) then invoking directive-validator on it. In the event of an invalid form, invalid-form-reporter will be used to control reporting (see report-invalid-form) with location providing information about where the configuration form appeared.

Function: xdg-cache-home &rest more

The base directory relative to which user specific non-essential data files should be stored. Returns an absolute directory pathname. more may contain specifications for a subpath relative to this directory: a subpathname specification and keyword arguments as per resolve-location (see also "Configuration DSL") in the ASDF manual.

Function: xdg-config-dirs &rest more

The preference-ordered set of additional base paths to search for configuration files. Returns a list of absolute directory pathnames. more may contain specifications for a subpath relative to these directories: subpathname specification and keyword arguments as per resolve-location (see also "Configuration DSL") in the ASDF manual.

Function: xdg-config-home &rest more

Returns a pathname for the directory containing user-specific configuration files. more may contain specifications for a subpath relative to this directory: a subpathname specification and keyword arguments as per resolve-location (see also "Configuration DSL") in the ASDF manual.

Function: xdg-config-pathnames &rest more

Return a list of pathnames for application configuration. more may contain specifications for a subpath relative to these directories: a subpathname specification and keyword arguments as per resolve-location (see also "Configuration DSL") in the ASDF manual.

Function: xdg-data-dirs &rest more

The preference-ordered set of additional paths to search for data files. Returns a list of absolute directory pathnames. more may contain specifications for a subpath relative to these directories: a subpathname specification and keyword arguments as per resolve-location (see also "Configuration DSL") in the ASDF manual.

Function: xdg-data-home &rest more

Returns an absolute pathname for the directory containing user-specific data files. more may contain specifications for a subpath relative to this directory: a subpathname specification and keyword arguments as per resolve-location (see also "Configuration DSL") in the ASDF manual.

Function: xdg-data-pathnames &rest more

Return a list of absolute pathnames for application data directories. With app, returns directory for data for that application, without app, returns the set of directories for storing all application configurations. more may contain specifications for a subpath relative to these directories: a subpathname specification and keyword arguments as per resolve-location (see also "Configuration DSL") in the ASDF manual.

Function: xdg-runtime-dir &rest more

Pathname for user-specific non-essential runtime files and other file objects, such as sockets, named pipes, etc. Returns an absolute directory pathname. more may contain specifications for a subpath relative to this directory: a subpathname specification and keyword arguments as per resolve-location (see also "Configuration DSL") in the ASDF manual.

Variable: *here-directory*

This special variable is bound to the currect directory during calls to process-source-registry in order that we be able to interpret the :here directive.

Variable: *ignored-configuration-form*

Have configuration forms been ignored while parsing the configuration?

Variable: *user-cache*

A specification as per resolve-location of where the user keeps his FASL cache


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15 UIOP/BACKWARD-DRIVER

uiop/backward-driver provides backward-compatibility with earlier incarnations of this library.

Function: coerce-pathname name &key type defaults

deprecated. Please use uiop:parse-unix-namestring instead.

Function: in-first-directory dirs x &key direction

Finds the first appropriate file named x in the list of dirs for I/O in direction (which may be :input, :output, :io, or :probe). If direction is :input or :probe, will return the first extant file named x in one of the dirs. If direction is :output or :io, will simply return the file named x in the first element of dirs that exists. deprecated.

Function: in-system-configuration-directory x &key direction

Return the pathname for the file named x under the system configuration directory for common-lisp. deprecated.

Function: in-user-configuration-directory x &key direction

Return the file named x in the user configuration directory for common-lisp. deprecated.

Function: system-configuration-directories

Return the list of system configuration directories for common-lisp. deprecated. Use uiop:config-system-pathnames instead.

Function: user-configuration-directories

Return the current user’s list of user configuration directories for configuring common-lisp. deprecated. Use uiop:xdg-config-pathnames instead.

Function: version-compatible-p provided-version required-version

Is the provided version a compatible substitution for the required-version? If major versions differ, it’s not compatible. If they are equal, then any later version is compatible, with later being determined by a lexicographical comparison of minor numbers. deprecated.


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16 UIOP/DRIVER

uiop/driver doesn’t export any new symbols. It just exists to reexport all the utilities in a single package uiop.