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Revision 1.6 - (show annotations)
Tue Jan 24 17:13:32 2006 UTC (8 years, 2 months ago) by rtoy
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o Add more detail to cross-platform cross-compile.
1 -*- Mode: text -*-
2 Building CMU CL
3 ===============
5 This document is intended to give you a general overview of the build
6 process (i.e. what needs to be done, in what order, and what is it
7 generally called). It will also tell you how to set up a suitable
8 build environment, how the individual scripts fit into the general
9 scheme of things, and give you a couple of examples.
11 General Requirements
12 --------------------
14 In order to build CMU CL, you will need:
16 a) A working CMU CL binary. There is no way around this requirement!
18 This binary can either be for the platform you want to target, in
19 that case you can either recompile or cross-compile, or for another
20 supported platform, in that case you must cross-compile, obviously.
22 b) A supported C compiler for the C runtime code.
24 Most of the time, this means GNU gcc, though for some ports it
25 means the vendor-supplied C compiler. The compiler must be
26 available under the name specified by your ports Config file.
28 c) GNU make
30 This has to be available either as gmake or make in your PATH, or
31 the MAKE environment variable has to be set to point to the correct
32 binary.
34 d) The CMU CL source code
36 Here you can either use one of the release source tarballs, or
37 check out the source code directly from the public CMUCL CVS
38 repository.
40 If you want to build CMU CL's Motif interface/toolkit, you'll need a
41 working version of the Motif libraries, either true-blue OSF/Motif, or
42 OpenMotif, or Lesstif. The code was developed against 1.2 Motif,
43 though recompilation against 2.x Motif probably works as well.
45 Setting up a build environment
46 ------------------------------
48 1.) Create a base directory and change to it
50 mkdir cmucl ; cd cmucl
52 2.) Fetch the sources and put them into the base directory
54 tar xzf /tmp/cmucl-source.tar.gz
56 or, if you want to use the CVS sources directly:
58 export CVSROOT=:pserver:anonymous@common-lisp.net:/project/cmucl/cvsroot
59 cvs login (password is `anonymous')
60 cvs co src
62 Whatever you do, the sources must be in a directory named src
63 inside the base directory. Since the build tools keep all
64 generated files in separate target directories, the src directory
65 can be read-only (e.g. mounted read-only via NFS, etc.)
67 The build tools are all in the src/tools directory.
69 That's it, you are now ready to build CMU CL.
71 A quick guide for simple builds
72 -------------------------------
74 We recommend that you read all of this document, but in case you don't
75 want to do that and in case you know, somehow, that the version of
76 CMUCL you are building from will build the sources you have, here is a
77 quick guide.
79 a) Simple builds
81 Use this to build from a version of CMUCL that is very close to the
82 sources you are trying to build now:
84 src/tools/build.sh -C "" -o "<name-of-old-lisp> <options-to-lisp>"
86 This will build CMUCL 3 times, each time with the result of the
87 previous build. The last time, the additional libraries like CLX,
88 CLM, and Hemlock are built. The final result will be in the
89 directory build-4.
91 This script basically runs create-target.sh, build-world.sh,
92 load-world.sh three times. See below for descriptions of these
93 scripts.
95 b) Slightly more complicated builds
97 For slightly more complicated builds, you may need to use some
98 bootstrap files. See below for more information about these
99 bootstrap files.
101 For these, you can use this:
103 src/tools/build.sh -C "" -o "<old-lisp>" -B boot1.lisp -B boot2.lisp
105 The bootstrap files listed with the -B option (as many as needed)
106 are loaded in order, so be sure to get them right.
108 As in a) above, three builds are done, and the result is in the
109 directory build-4.
111 c) More complicated builds
113 If you have more complicated builds, this script probably will not
114 work, and definitely does not handle cross-compiles. In this case,
115 you will have to invoke the individual scripts by hand, as
116 described below.
118 How do you know which of the three options above apply? The easiest
119 way is to look in src/bootfiles/<version>/* for boot files. If the
120 file date of a boot file is later than the version of CMUCL you are
121 building from, then you need to use b) or c) above. You may need to
122 read the bootfiles for additional instructions, if any.
124 If there are no bootfiles, then you can use a) above.
126 The build.sh script supports other options, and src/tools/build.sh -?
127 will give a quick summary. Read src/tools/build.sh for more
128 information.
130 A general outline of the build process
131 --------------------------------------
133 Building CMU CL can happen in one of two ways: Normal recompilation,
134 and cross-compilation. We'll first look at normal recompilation:
136 The recompilation process basically consists of 4 phases/parts:
138 a) Compiling the lisp files that make up the standard kernel.
140 This happens in your current CMU CL process, using your current
141 CMU CL's normal file compiler. This phase currently consists of 3
142 sub-phases, namely those controlled by src/tools/worldcom.lisp,
143 which compiles all the runtime files, src/tools/comcom.lisp, which
144 compiles the compiler (including your chosen backend), and finally
145 src/tools/pclcom.lisp, which compiles PCL, CMU CL's CLOS
146 implementation. The whole phase is often called "world-compile",
147 or "compiling up a world", based on the name of the first
148 sub-phase.
150 b) Building a new kernel.core file out of the so created files
152 This process, which is generally called genesis, and which is
153 controlled by src/tools/worldbuild.lisp, uses the newly compiled
154 files in order to build a new, basic core file, which is then used
155 by the last phase to create a fully functional normal core file.
156 It does this by "loading" the compiled files into an in-core
157 representation of a new core file, which is then dumped out to
158 disk, together with lots of fixups that need to happen once the new
159 core is started.
161 As part of this process, it also creates the file internals.h,
162 which contains information about the general memory layout of the
163 new core and its basic types, their type tags, and the location of
164 several important constants and other variables, that are needed by
165 the C runtime code to work with the given core.
167 So going through genesis is needed to create internals.h, which is
168 needed to compile the C runtime code (i.e. the "lisp" binary).
169 However there is a slight circularity here, since genesis needs as
170 one of its inputs the file target:lisp/lisp.nm, which contains the
171 (slightly pre-treated) output of running nm on the new lisp
172 binary. Genesis uses this information to fixup the addresses of C
173 runtime support functions for calls from Lisp code.
175 However the circularity isn't complete, since genesis can work with
176 an empty/bogus lisp.nm file. While the kernel.core it then
177 produces is unusable, it will create a usable internals.h file,
178 which can be used to recompile the C runtime code, producing a
179 usable lisp.nm file, which in turn can be used to restart genesis,
180 producing a working kernel.core file.
182 Genesis also checks whether the newly produced internals.h file
183 differs from a pre-existing internals.h file (this might be caused
184 by an empty internals.h file if you are rebuilding for the first
185 time, or by changes in the lisp sources that cause differences in
186 the memory layout of the kernel.core), and informs you of this, so
187 that you can recompile the C runtime code, and restart genesis.
189 If it doesn't inform you of this, you can skip directly to the last
190 phase d).
192 c) Recompiling the C runtime code, producing the "lisp" binary file
194 This step is only needed if you haven't yet got a suitable lisp
195 binary, or if the internals.h file has changed during genesis (of
196 which genesis informs you), or when you made changes to the C
197 sources that you want to take effect.
199 Recompiling the C runtime code is controlled by a GNU Makefile, and
200 your target's Config file. It depends on a correct internals.h
201 file as produced by genesis.
203 Note that whenever you recompile the runtime code, for whatever
204 reason, you must redo phase b). Note that if you make changes to
205 the C sources and recompile because of this, you can do that before
206 Phase b), so that you don't have to perform that phase twice.
208 d) Populating the kernel.core, and dumping a new lisp.core file.
210 In this phase, which is controlled by src/tools/worldload.lisp, and
211 hence often called world-load, the kernel.core file is started up
212 using the (possibly new) lisp binary, the remaining files which
213 were compiled in phase a) are loaded into it, and a new lisp.core
214 file is dumped out.
216 We're not quite done yet. This produces just a basic lisp.core.
217 To complete the build so that you something similar to what the
218 releases of CMUCL do, there are a few more steps:
220 e) Build the utilities like Gray streams, simple streams, CLX, CLM,
221 and Hemlock. Use the src/tools/build-utils.sh script for this, as
222 described below
224 f) Create tarfiles using the src/tools/make-dist.sh script, as
225 explained below.
227 With these tarfiles, you can install them anywhere. The contents of
228 the tarfiles will be the same as the snapshots and releases of CMUCL.
230 When cross-compiling, there is additional phase at the beginning, and
231 some of the phases happen with different hosts/platforms. The initial
232 phase is setting up and compiling the cross-compilation backend, using
233 your current compiler. The new backend is then loaded, and all
234 compilation in phase a) happens using this compiler backend. The
235 creation of the kernel.core file in phase b) happens as usual, while
236 phase c) of course happens on the target platform (if that differs
237 from the host platform), as does the final phase d). Another major
238 difference is that you can't compile PCL using the cross-compiler, so
239 one usually does a normal rebuild using the cross-compiled core on the
240 target platform to get a full CMU CL core.
242 So, now you know all about CMU CL compilation, how does that map onto
243 the scripts included with this little text?
245 Overview of the included build scripts
246 --------------------------------------
248 * src/tools/create-target.sh target-directory [lisp-variant [motif-variant]]
250 This script creates a new target directory, which is a shadow of the
251 source directory, that will contain all the files that are created by
252 the build process. Thus, each target's files are completely separate
253 from the src directory, which could, in fact, be read-only. Hence you
254 can simultaneously build CMUCL for different targets from the same
255 source directory.
257 The first argument is the name of the target directory to create. The
258 remaining arguments are optional. If they are not given, the script
259 tries to determine the lisp variant and motif variant from the system
260 the script is running on.
262 The lisp-variant (i.e. the suffix of the src/lisp/Config.* to use as
263 the target's Config file), and optionally the motif-variant (again the
264 suffix of the src/motif/server/Config.* file to use as the Config file
265 for the target's CMUCL/Motif server code). If the lisp-variant is
266 given but the motif-variant is not, the motif-variant is determined
267 from the lisp-variant.
269 The script will generate the target directory tree, link the relevant
270 Config files, and generate place-holder files for various files, in
271 order to ensure proper operation of the other build-scripts. It also
272 creates a sample setenv.lisp file in the target directory, which is
273 used by the build and load processes to set up the correct list of
274 *features* for your target lisp core.
276 IMPORTANT: You will normally NOT have to modify the sample setenv.lisp
277 file, if you are building from a binary that has the desired features.
278 In fact, the sample has all code commented out, If you want to add or
279 remove features, you need to include code that puts at least a minimal
280 set of features onto the list (use PUSHNEW and/or REMOVE). You can
281 use the current set of *features* of your lisp as a first guide. The
282 sample setenv.lisp includes a set of features that should work for the
283 intended configuration. Note also that some adding or removing some
284 features may require a cross-compile instead of a normal compile.
286 * src/tools/clean-target.sh [-l] target-directory [more dirs]
288 Cleans the given target directory, so that all created files will be
289 removed. This is useful to force recompilation. If the -l flag is
290 given, then the C runtime is also removed, including all the lisp
291 executable, any lisp cores, all object files, lisp.nm, internals.h,
292 and the config file.
294 * src/tools/build-world.sh target-directory [build-binary] [build-flags...]
296 Starts a complete world build for the given target, using the lisp
297 binary/core specified as a build host. The recompilation step will
298 only recompile changed files, or files for which the fasl files are
299 missing. It will also not recompile the C runtime code (the lisp
300 binary). If a (re)compilation of that code is needed, the genesis
301 step of the world build will inform you of that fact. In that case,
302 you'll have to use the rebuild-lisp.sh script, and then restart the
303 world build process with build-world.sh
305 * src/tools/rebuild-lisp.sh target-directory
307 This script will force a complete recompilation of the C runtime code
308 of CMU CL (aka the lisp executable). Doing this will necessitate
309 building a new kernel.core file, using build-world.sh.
311 * src/tools/load-world.sh target-directory version
313 This will finish the CMU CL rebuilding process, by loading the
314 remaining compiled files generated in the world build process into the
315 kernel.core file, that also resulted from that process, creating the
316 final lisp.core file.
318 You have to pass the version string as a second argument. The dumped
319 core will anounce itself using that string. Please don't use a string
320 consisting of an official release name only, (e.g. "18d"), since those
321 are reserved for official release builds. Including the build-date in
322 ISO8601 format is often a good idea, e.g. "18d+ 2002-05-06" for a
323 binary that is based on sources current on the 6th May, 2002, which is
324 post the 18d release.
326 * src/tools/build-utils.sh target-directory
328 This script will build auxiliary libraries packaged with CMU CL,
329 including CLX, CMUCL/Motif, the Motif debugger, inspector, and control
330 panel, and the Hemlock editor. It will use the lisp executable and
331 core of the given target.
333 * src/tools/make-dist.sh [-bg] [-G group] [-O owner] target-directory version arch os
335 This script creates both main and extra distribution tarballs from the
336 given target directory, using the make-main-dist.sh and
337 make-extra-dist.sh scripts. The result will be two tar files. One
338 contains the main distribution including the runtime and lisp.core
339 with PCL (CLOS); the second contains the extra libraries such as
340 Gray-streams, simple-streams, CLX, CLM, and Hemlock.
342 Some options that are available:
344 -b Use bzip2 compression
345 -g Use gzip compression
346 -G group Group to use
347 -O owner Owner to use
349 If you specify both -b and -g, you will get two sets of tarfiles. The
350 -G and -O options will attempt to set the owner and group of the files
351 when building the tarfiles. This way, when you extract the tarfiles,
352 the owner and group will be set as specified. You may need to be root
353 to do this because many Unix systems don't normally let you change the
354 owner and group of a file.
356 The remaining arguments used to create the name of the tarfiles. The
357 names will have the form:
359 cmucl-<version>-<arch>-<os>.tar.bz2
360 cmucl-<version>-<arch>-<os>.extras.tar.bz2
362 Of course, the "bz2" will be "gz" if you specified gzip compression
363 instead of bzip.
365 * /src/tools/make-main-dist.sh target-directory version arch os
367 This is script is not normally invoked by the user; make-dist will do
368 it appropriately.
370 This script creates a main distribution tarball (both in gzipped and
371 bzipped variants) from the given target directory. This will include
372 all the stuff that is normally included in official release tarballs
373 such as lisp.core and the PCL libraries, including Gray streams and
374 simple streams.
376 This is intended to be run from make-dist.sh.
378 * src/tools/make-extra-dist.sh target-directory version arch os
380 This is script is not normally invoked by the user; make-dist will do
381 it appropriately.
383 This script creates an extra distribution tarball (both in gzipped and
384 bzipped variants) from the given target directory. This will include
385 all the stuff that is normally included in official extra release
386 tarballs, i.e. the auxiliary libraries such as CLX, CLM, and Hemlock.
388 This is intended to be run from make-dist.sh.
391 * cross-build-world.sh target-directory cross-directory cross-script
392 [build-binary] [build-flags...]
394 This is a script that can be used instead of build-world.sh for
395 cross-compiling CMUCL. In addition to the arguments of build-world.sh
396 it takes two further required arguments: The name of a directory that
397 will contain the cross-compiler backend (the directory is created if
398 it doesn't exist, and must not be the same as the target-directory),
399 and the name of a Lisp cross-compilation script, which is responsible
400 for setting up, compiling, and loading the cross-compiler backend.
401 The latter argument is needed because each host/target combination of
402 platform's needs slightly different code to produce a working
403 cross-compiler.
405 We include a number of working examples of cross-compiler scripts in
406 the cross-scripts directory. You'll have to edit the features section
407 of the given scripts, to specify the features that should be removed
408 from the current set of features in the host lisp, and those that
409 should be added, so that the backend features are correct for the
410 intended target.
412 You can look at Eric Marsden's collection of build scripts for the
413 basis of more cross-compiler scripts.
415 Step-by-Step Example of recompiling CMUCL for OpenBSD
416 -----------------------------------------------------
418 Set up everything as described in the setup section above. Then
419 execute:
421 # Create a new target directory structure/config for OpenBSD:
422 src/tools/create-target.sh openbsd OpenBSD_gencgc OpenBSD
424 # edit openbsd/setenv.lisp to contain what we want:
425 cat <<EOF > openbsd/setenv.lisp
426 ;;; Put code to massage *features* list here...
428 (in-package :user)
430 (pushnew :openbsd *features*)
431 (pushnew :bsd *features*)
432 (pushnew :i486 *features*)
433 (pushnew :mp *features*)
434 (pushnew :hash-new *features*)
435 (pushnew :random-mt19937 *features*)
436 (pushnew :conservative-float-type *features*)
437 (pushnew :gencgc *features*)
439 ;;; Version tags
441 (pushnew :cmu18d *features*)
442 (pushnew :cmu18 *features*)
443 (setf *features* (remove :cmu17 *features*))
444 (setf *features* (remove :cmu18c *features*))
445 EOF
447 # Recompile the lisp world, and dump a new kernel.core:
448 src/tools/build-world.sh openbsd lisp # Or whatever you need to invoke your
449 # current lisp binary+core
451 # If build-world tells you (as it will the first time) that:
452 # "The C header file has changed. Be sure to re-compile the startup
453 # code."
454 # You 'll need to start rebuild-lisp.sh to do that, and then reinvoke
455 # build-world.sh:
457 # Recompile lisp binary itself:
458 src/tools/rebuild-lisp.sh openbsd
460 # Restart build-world.sh now:
461 src/tools/build-world.sh openbsd lisp
463 # Now we populate the kernel.core with further compiled files,
464 # and dump the final lisp.core file:
466 src/tools/load-world.sh openbsd "18d+ 2002-05-06"
468 # The second argument above is the version number that the built
469 # core will announce. Please always put the build-date and some
470 # other information in there, to make it possible to differentiate
471 # those builds from official builds, which only contain the release.
473 Now you should have a new lisp.core, which you can start with
475 ./openbsd/lisp/lisp -core ./openbsd/lisp/lisp.core -noinit -nositeinit
477 Compiling sources that contain disruptive changes
478 -------------------------------------------------
480 The above instructions should always work as-is for recompiling CMU CL
481 using matching binaries and source files. They also work quite often
482 when recompiling newer sources. However, every so often, some change
483 to the CMU CL sources necessitates some form of bootstrapping, so that
484 binaries built from earlier sources can compile the sources containing
485 that change. There are two forms of boostrapping that can be
486 required:
488 a) Bootfiles
490 The maintainers try to make bootfiles available, that allow going
491 from an old release to the next release. These are located in the
492 src/bootfiles/<old-release>/ directory of the CMU CL sources.
494 I.e. if you have binaries that match release 18d, then you'll need
495 to use all the bootfiles in src/bootfiles/18d/ in order to go to
496 the next release (or current sources, if no release has been made
497 yet). If you already used some of the bootstrap files to compile
498 your current lisp, you obviously don't need to use those to get to
499 later versions.
501 You can use the bootfiles by concatenating them into a file called
502 bootstrap.lisp in the target directory (i.e. target:bootstrap.lisp)
503 in the order they are numbered. Be sure to remove the bootstrap
504 file once it is no longer needed.
506 Alternatively, the bootstrap file can just "load" the individual
507 bootfiles as needed.
509 b) Cross-compiling
511 Under some circumstances, bootstrap code will not be sufficient,
512 and a cross-compilation is needed. In that case you will have to
513 use cross-build-world.sh, instead of build-world.sh. Please read
514 the instructions of that script for details of the more complex
515 procedure.
517 << This isn't really true anymore, and we should place a more
518 elaborate description of the cross-compiling process here >>
520 When cross-compiling, there are two sorts of bootscripts that can be
521 used: Those that want to be executed prior to compiling and loading
522 the cross-compiler, which should be placed in the file called
523 target:cross-bootstrap.lisp, and those that should happen after the
524 cross-compiler has been compiled and loaded, just prior to compiling
525 the target, which should be placed in target:bootstrap.lisp, just
526 like when doing a normal recompile.
528 Additionally, sometimes customized cross-compiler setup scripts
529 (to be used in place of e.g. cross-x86-x86.lisp) are required,
530 which are also placed in one of the bootfiles/*/* files. In those
531 cases follow the instructions provided in that file, possibly merging
532 the changed contents thereof with your normal cross-script.
534 Step-by-Step Example of Cross-Compiling
535 ---------------------------------------
537 This gives a step-by-step example of cross-compiling a sparc-v8 build
538 using a sparc-v9 build. (For some unknown reason, you can't just
539 remove the :sparc-v9 feature and add :sparc-v8.)
541 So, first get a recent sparc-v9 build. It's best to get a version
542 that is up-to-date with the sources. Otherwise, you may also need to
543 add a bootstrap file to get any bootfiles to make your lisp
544 up-to-date with the current sources.
546 1. Select a directory for the cross-compiler and compiled target:
548 Create a cross-compiler directory to hold the cross-compiler
549 and a target directory to hold the result:
551 src/tools/create-target.sh xcross
552 src/tools/create-target.sh xtarget
554 2. Adjust cross-compilation script
556 Copy the src/tools/cross-scripts/cross-sparc-sparc.lisp to
557 xtarget/cross.lisp. Edit it appropriately. In this case, it
558 should look something like:
560 (c::new-backend "SPARC"
561 ;; Features to add here
562 '(:sparc :sparc-v8
563 :complex-fp-vops
564 :linkage-table
565 :gencgc
566 :stack-checking
567 :relative-package-names
568 :conservative-float-type
569 :hash-new :random-mt19937
570 :cmu :cmu19 :cmu19a
571 )
572 ;; Features to remove from current *features* here
573 '(:sparc-v9 :sparc-v7 :x86 :x86-bootstrap :alpha :osf1 :mips
574 :propagate-fun-type :propagate-float-type :constrain-float-type
575 :openbsd :freebsd :glibc2 :linux :pentium
576 :long-float :new-random :small))
578 (setf *features* (remove :sparc-v9 *features*))
579 (pushnew :sparc-v8 *features*)
581 It's important to add frob *features* here as well as in the
582 new-backend. If you don't adjust *features*, they won't be
583 set appropriately in the result.
585 3. Build the cross compiler and target
586 Now compile the result:
588 src/tools/cross-build-world.sh xtarget xcross xtarget/cross.lisp [v9 binary]
590 4. Rebuild the lisp files:
592 When this finishes, you need to compile the C code:
594 src/tools/rebuild-lisp.sh xtarget
596 At this point, you may want to run cross-build-world.sh again
597 to generate a new kernel.core. It shouldn't build anything;
598 just loads everything and creates a kernel.core.
600 5. Build the world:
602 With the new kernel.core, we need to create a lisp.core:
604 src/tools/load-world.sh xtarget "new lisp"
606 Test the result with
608 xtarget/lisp/lisp -noinit
610 However, this lisp will be missing some functionality like PCL. You
611 probably now want to use the compiler to rebuild everything once
612 again. Just follow the directions for a normal build, and use
613 xtarget/lisp/lisp as your compiler. Be sure to use create-target.sh
614 to create a new directory where the result can go.
616 Cross-Platform Cross-Compile
617 ----------------------------
619 A cross-platform cross-compile is very similar to a normal
620 cross-compile, and the basic steps are the same. For the sake of
621 concreteness, assume we are on ppc/darwin and want to cross-compile
622 to x86/linux.
624 To simplify things, we assume that both platforms have access to the
625 same file system, via NFS or something else.
627 1. As above, we need to create directories for the cross-compiler and
628 compiled target. We assume we are on ppc/darwin. So, when running
629 create-target.sh we need to specify the target:
631 src/tools/create-target.sh x86-cross x86
632 src/tools/create-target.sh x86-target x86
634 2. Adjust the cross-compilation script. An example for ppc/darwin to
635 x86/linux is in src/tools/cross-scripts/cross-ppc-x86.lisp.
637 3. Build the cross compiler and target, as above, using the specified
638 cross-compile script.
640 4. Everything has now been compiled for the x86/linux target. We need
641 to compile the C code for x86 and create a lisp.core from the
642 kernel.core. This is where it's useful to have both platforms be
643 able to access the same file system. If not, you will need to copy
644 all of the generated files from ppc/darwin to x86/linux. Basically
645 everything in xtarget needs to be copied.
647 Note carefully that you may have to edit lisp/internals.h and/or
648 lisp/internals.inc to have the correct features. This is a known
649 bug in the generation of these files during cross-compilation.
652 5. Now run load-world.sh to create the desired lisp.core from lisp and
653 kernel.core. As above, PCL has not been compiled, so select
654 restart 3 (return nil from pclload) to create lisp.core
656 At this point, you will have a shiny new lisp on the new platform.
657 Since it's missing PCL, you will need to do at least one normal build
658 to get PCL included. This is also a good check to see if everything
659 was compiled properly. A full set of builds via build.sh might be
660 good at this point too.

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