CommonQt is a Common Lisp binding to the smoke library for Qt.

Download

Get it from git:

git clone git://gitorious.org/commonqt/commonqt.git
Gitorious page: http://gitorious.org/commonqt.
Github mirror: https://github.com/stassats/commonqt.

Support

Mailing list: commonqt-devel@common-lisp.net, subscription.
Reporting bugs: https://github.com/stassats/commonqt/issues.

Dependencies (C++)

CommonQt needs:

Windows

Dependencies (Lisp)

CommonQt is mostly tested with SBCL and Clozure CL. It have been reported to run on Allegro and LispWorks in the past. And also can run on ABCL and ECL, albeit slower than desired.

Installation

Quicklisp is the preferred way to install commonqt:

(ql:quickload :qt)

The ASDF system runs make for you automatically to build the C++ wrapper library libcommonqt.so (except on Windows).

If loading fails during compilation of libcommonqt.so with something like

OPERATION-ERROR while invoking #<COMPILE-OP > on
#<CPP->SO "qt" "so" "commonqt">
or
OPERATION-ERROR while invoking  #<COMPILE-OP > on
#<MAKEFILE "qt" "so" "commonqt.pro">
      
run qmake followed by make inside the source directory for troubleshooting.

To find where the source directory is located use

(asdf:system-source-directory 'qt)

(On Windows, run qmake followed by vcbuild.)

Examples

QApplication

The constructor for QApplication requires more FFI magic than you would probably want to write yourself, because it is designed to take the (int* argc, void** argc) arguments from a main function in C.

Use the make-qapplication function provided by Qt instead, which takes string arguments and converts them. QApplication can be instantiated only once, therefore make-qapplication sets *qapplication* variable to the produced instance, and only creates a new one if *qapplication* is NIL.

Examples:

(make-qapplication)
(make-qapplication "-display" ":0")

Creating a main window

with-main-window macro can be used as an entry point of a program:

(with-main-window (window (#_new QWidget)))

is equivalent to doing

(make-qapplication)
(with-objects ((window (#_new QWidget)))
  (#_show window)
  (#_exec *qapplication*))
  
After closing the window it can be executed again.

Loading Modules

Loading additional modules is done using ensure-smoke, (make-qapplication) already loads QtCore and QtGui, anything else has to be loaded explicitly, e.g., (ensure-smoke :qtsvg).

Calling instance methods

Use the #_ reader macro to invoke Qt methods easily.

Example:

(#_setGeometry window 100 100 500 355)
(#_show window)

The first argument is the instance to call the method on, the following arguments are passed on to the method.

Method names are case sensitive.

To enable the reader macro, use (named-readtables:in-readtable :qt) at the top of your file.

Calling static methods

Static methods:

Example:

(#_Qt::blue)

Instantiating Qt classes

The reader macro for #_ has a special case: If it is followed by new, it keeps reading to find a class name, then returns a call to a constructor instead.

Example:

(#_new QPushButton "Quit")

Class names are case-sensitive.

In this case, the macro expands into a use of the qt:new function.

Connecting signals and slots

The function CONNECT is used to connect signals and slots in different ways:

with-signals-blocked macro is used to block the signals emitted by objects to improve performance or avoid endless recursion:
(with-signals-blocked (button linedit)
  ...)
    

Subclassing C++ classes

You can make "subclasses" using smoke like this:

(defclass button ()
    ()
  (:metaclass qt-class)
  (:qt-superclass "QPushButton"))

(defmethod initialize-instance :after ((instance button))

  ;; Must call the C++ constructor here first:
  (new instance "label")

  ;; can call C++ methods on this lisp object afterwards:
  (connect instance "clicked()" *qapplication* "quit()")

Always specify the metaclass. Specify the qt-superclass only when not subclassing another such Lisp class that already has it. Above we didn't specify a superclass, so it was defaulted to qt:dynamic-object, a subclass of qt:qobject.

Always call the C++ constructor from initialize-instance. Note the use of qt:new with an existing instance that already knows its class (but doesn't have a pointer slot yet).

Overriding C++ methods

In a subclass (see the example above), you can override C++ methods like this:

(defclass canvas ()
    ()
  (:metaclass qt-class)
  (:qt-superclass "QWidget")
  (:override ("paintEvent" paint-event)))

(defmethod paint-event ((this canvas) paint-event)
  (declare (ignore paint-event))
  (let ((painter (#_new QPainter this)))
    ... paint something ...
    (#_end painter)))
  

To call the C++ method in an overridden method, either call-next-qmethod can be used, when the return value is needed, or stop-overriding can be used, which performs a non local transfer of control and never returns, but is implemented more efficiently.

Note that we always intercept all methods of the specified name, ignoring their argument type signature. In this case, there's only one method called paintEvent, so that is safe to do. If there was a second paintEvent method without arguments, you'd have to use &optional or &rest to avoid errors.

Defining signals and slots

In a subclass (see the example above), you can add signals and slots. Here is a real example from tutorial 13:

(defclass cannon-field ()
    (...)
  (:metaclass qt-class)
  (:qt-superclass "QWidget")
  (:slots ("setAngle(int)" (lambda (this newval)
                             (setf (current-angle this)
                                   (min (max 5 newval) 70))))
          ("setForce(int)" (lambda (this newval)
                             (setf (current-force this)
                                   (max 0 newval))))
          ("void moveShot()" move-shot)
          ("void shoot()" shoot)
          ("void setGameOver()" set-game-over)
          ("void restartGame()" restart-game))
  (:signals ("angleChanged(int)")
            ("forceChanged(int)")
            ("void hit()")
            ("void missed()")
            ("void canShoot(bool)")))

Note the use of lambda to pre-process values and swap arguments in slots that are meant to just call a CLOS accessor eventually, and the use of lisp function names elsewhere.

Signals don't have a corresponding Lisp function. Emit them like this: (emit-signal object signal-name arguments)

QAPROPOS

There a function qapropos similar in spirit to apropos which looks for Qt classes and methods.

Example:

QT-USER> (qapropos "sliderposition")
Method QAbstractSlider::setSliderPosition [660]
Method QAbstractSlider::sliderPosition [661]
Method QStyle::sliderPositionFromValue [14984]
Method QStyle::sliderPositionFromValue [14985]
Method QStyleOptionSlider::sliderPosition [15351]
Method QStyleOptionSlider::setSliderPosition [15364]
  

QDESCRIBE for classes

There a function qdescribe similar in spirit to describe.

Example for a class name:

QT-USER> (qdescribe "QPushButton")
#<QCLASS QPushButton> is a smoke class

    name: QPushButton
    flags: VIRTUAL, CONSTRUCTOR

Superclasses:
    QAbstractButton
        QWidget
            QObject
            QPaintDevice

Methods:
    paintEvent#               QPushButton::paintEvent [12423]
    minimumSizeHint           QPushButton::minimumSizeHint [12409]
    metaObject                QPushButton::metaObject [12399]
    menu                      QPushButton::menu [12415]

    [long list trimmed here]

    QPushButton               QPushButton::QPushButton [12402]

Use (QDESCRIBE "QPushButton" T) to see inherited methods.

Properties:
    bool autoDefault                    
    bool default                        
    bool flat                           

Use (QDESCRIBE "QPushButton" T) to see inherited properties.
  

QDESCRIBE for methods

qdescribe can also show methods, if used with a string of the form classname.methodname:

QT-USER> (qdescribe "QPushButton::paintEvent")
#<QMETHOD QPushButton::paintEvent> is a smoke method
    class: #<QCLASS QPushButton>
    name: paintEvent
    return type: NIL
    flags: PROTECTED
  argument types:
    #<QTYPE (QPaintEvent*) kind: POINTER, stack: CLASS, class: #<QCLASS QPaintEvent>>
  

If there are several methods of that name, it shows each method with its arguments.

QDESCRIBE for objects

qdescribe on Qt objects can show their property values at run time:

QT-USER> (qdescribe (#_new QPushButton "test"))
#<QPushButton 0x27A654D0> is a smoke object.

Use (QDESCRIBE "QPushButton") to see details about its C++ class.

Properties:
    QString objectName                  ""
    bool modal                          NIL
    Qt::WindowModality windowModality   #<QVariant 0x27A65100>
    bool enabled                        T
    QRect geometry                      #<QRect 0x27443860>
    QRect frameGeometry                 #<QRect 0x27A66E20>
    QRect normalGeometry                #<QRect 0x27A63540>
    int x                               0
    int y                               0
    QString text                        "test"

    [long list trimmed here]
  

If there are several methods of that name, it shows each method with its arguments.

Known issues

Callbacks from threads

Callbacks from foreign threads do not work on all implementations. One particular widget that performs such callbacks is QFileDialog. Clozure CL is known to work with them out of the box. SBCL not on Windows requires some non-default build options: sb-safepoint, sb-thruption, sb-wtimer. Which can be enabled by putting the following into the customize-target-features.lisp file in the base source directory and rebuilding SBCL.

(lambda (features)
  (flet ((enable (x)
           (pushnew x features))
         (disable (x)
           (setf features (remove x features))))
    (enable :sb-thread)
    (enable :sb-safepoint)
    (enable :sb-thruption)
    (enable :sb-wtimer)))
      
Those features are known to be stable and safe at least on Linux-x86-64.

Slime on Windows

Running from Slime under Windows doesn't appear to work. Specifically, if the implementation is started as the subprocess of Emacs. To work around it, the implementation has to be started from cmd.exe, the swank server created and then Emacs can connect to it. An easy way to achieve that is to find the file start-swank.lisp in the slime directory and do

sbcl --load start-swank.lisp

And then do M-x slime-connect. start-swank.lisp can be edited to change the port and other settings.